What is the causative agent?
What is the causative agent? The patient, a 23-year-old man who works as a baker’s assistant, is undergoing treatment. He arrived at the ER with a low-grade fever, malaise, and headache. He was sent home after being diagnosed with influenza. He returned seven days later with a one-day history of worsening headache, photophobia, and stiff neck. Physical examination revealed that he was in mild distress, with a temperature of 38.8oC. He had a maculopapular rash on his trunk, arms, palms, and soles of his feet, as well as mild nuchal rigidity. There were no lesions on the mucus membrane. He had a white blood cell count of 11,200 per mm3 and a high frequency of PMNs. A head CT scan was expected, and a lumbar puncture revealed 120 white blood cells per mm3 with 80% lymphocytes and 20% PMNs. The diagnosis was revealed the next day by a CSF serological test. Following the diagnosis, further questioning of the patient revealed that he had a painless ulcer on his penis 1 month prior that healed spontaneously. In your paper, you must answer the following questions: 1. What is the patient’s diagnosis? What stage is being displayed?
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2. What other possible diagnoses should you have considered, according to your textbook? What other diseases might have symptoms similar to this one? 3. Which of the following signs, symptoms, history, clinical exam, and laboratory findings played the most crucial role in your diagnosis? What symptoms initially drew this patient to the clinic? Is this a typical symptom of this disease? How widespread is it? 4. Are there any people who are particularly vulnerable to this disease? How does it spread? How widespread is this disease? Can carriers exist? What exactly occurred during the Tuskegee experiments? 5. What is the disease’s etiological agent (causative agent)? Give the primary characteristics of this organism (shape, gram stain reaction, habitat, unique properties of this organism). Is this organism responsible for any other diseases? If so, what exactly are they? 6. What characteristics (virulence factors) does this organism possess that allow it to infect others? How do they assist the organism in causing disease? What are the disease stages? 7. Do you need special techniques to grow this organism in the clinical lab? Is it possible to grow this organism on nutrient agar plates? In the lab, how is this organism typically identified? What methods are employed? Is a vaccine for this disease available? If so, what is the vaccine made of? 9. What is the best way to treat this disease? Which antibiotics should be used if antibiotics are recommended? Is antibiotic resistance a significant issue with this organism? 10. What nursing care is appropriate for this patient? Indicate whether the following examples represent a food infection or intoxication. In each case, what is the most likely etiological agent? The pathophysiology Quiz at FNU Describes whether the patient had any morbidities or psychosocial problems.