What are the similarities and differences between the nursing process and the research process?
What similarities and differences do you see between the research process, the Evidence-Based Practice process, and the nursing process? Include reasoning to back up your response.
What are the similarities and differences between the nursing process and the research process?
What are the similarities and differences between the nursing process and the research process? Explain your response.
The three main goals of the Magnet Recognition Program® and the Magnet Model component of new knowledge, innovation, and improvements are supported by research, evidence-based practice (EBP), and quality improvement. The Magnet Recognition Program’s three main goals are as follows: 1) Promote quality in a setting that encourages professional practice 2) Identify excellence in the delivery of nursing services to patients or residents; and 2) Disseminate best nursing practices.
The Magnet Model is made up of five parts:
leadership that is transformational
Exemplary professional practice, new knowledge, innovation, and empirical quality outcomes
Nurses at all levels of healthcare organizations must be involved in order to achieve the goals of the Magnet Recognition Program and the “new knowledge innovation and improvements” component of the Magnet Model. Many nurses may be unaware of the significance of their contributions to the development of new knowledge, innovations, and improvements, and they may be unable to distinguish between these processes. This article explains the fundamental distinctions between research, EBP, and quality improvement (QI.) (For more information, see the PDF link: Comparing research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement.)
The goal of research is to create new knowledge or validate existing knowledge based on a theory. Systematic, scientific inquiry is used in research studies to answer specific research questions or test hypotheses using disciplined, rigorous methods. While research is about investigation, exploration, and discovery, it also necessitates an understanding of scientific philosophy. Researchers must follow the scientific method in orderly, sequential steps if their findings are to be considered reliable and valid.
The process starts with burning (intriguing) questions about a specific phenomenon, such as: What do we know about the phenomenon? What evidence has been gathered and disseminated? What are the gaps in the knowledge base?
To answer those questions, the first part of the investigation entails a systematic, comprehensive review of the literature. Identified knowledge gaps are frequently used to motivate the development of a specific research question (or questions), a hypothesis or hypotheses, or both. Following that, a decision on the underlying theory that will guide the study and aid in the selection of the type of method to be used to investigate the phenomenon can be made.
The two most common research methods are quantitative (numerical) and qualitative (verbal), though mixed methods using both are becoming more popular. Quantitative studies typically investigate relationships between a set of variables related to the phenomenon, whereas qualitative studies seek to understand the underlying meaning of the variables involved.
Quantitative studies usually include scientific methodology to determine the appropriate sample size, various designs to control for potential errors during data collection, and rigorous statistical analysis of the data.
To give meaning to life experiences, qualitative studies typically investigate them.
Discovery occurs in all research as data is collected and analyzed, and results and outcomes are interpreted.
The publication of study results, along with a description of how they contribute to the body of knowledge, is an important final step in the research process. A systematic review of studies on preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), a randomized controlled trial exploring new wound care methods, and a qualitative study to investigate the lived experiences of patients with a specific chronic disease are all examples of potential nursing research.
EBP, unlike research, is not concerned with creating new knowledge or validating existing knowledge. It is necessary to translate the evidence and apply it to clinical decision-making. The goal of EBP is to make patient-care decisions based on the best available evidence. The majority of the best evidence comes from research. However, EBP extends beyond the use of research to include clinical expertise as well as patient preferences and values. The application of EBP recognizes that, in some cases, the best evidence is that of opinion leaders and experts, even when no definitive knowledge from research results exists. Whereas research focuses on creating new knowledge, EBP focuses on finding and translating the best evidence into clinical practice.
The steps of the EBP process
The EBP process consists of seven critical steps:
1. Develop an inquisitive mindset.
2. Pose a pressing clinical question.
3. Gather the most pertinent and best evidence.
4. Evaluate the evidence critically.
5. When making a practice decision or change, combine evidence with clinical expertise, patient preferences, and values.
6. Assess the decision or change in practice.
7. Disseminate EBP findings.
Cultivating an inquiry spirit means that nurses should always be asking questions about how to improve healthcare delivery, whether individually or collectively. A burning clinical question is frequently triggered by either a problem focus or a knowledge focus. Problem-focused triggers can occur as a result of identifying a clinical problem or in areas such as risk management, finance, or quality improvement. Knowledge-focused triggers can include new research findings or other literature findings, new care philosophies, or new regulations.
The next step in the EBP process, regardless of origin, is to review and appraise the literature. Whereas a research literature review focuses on identifying knowledge gaps, an EBP literature review focuses on locating the best current evidence.
In order to find the best available evidence, nurses must understand that there is a hierarchy of evidence levels and strength. To some extent, all of the evidence hierarchies are similar.
A systematic review, a meta-analysis, or an established evidence-based clinical practice guideline based on a systematic review typically provide the highest (strongest) level of evidence.
RCTs, other types of quantitative studies, qualitative studies, and expert opinion and analyses provide additional levels of evidence.
A critical evaluation
After gathering evidence, the researcher must critically evaluate each study to ensure its credibility and clinical significance. Critical appraisal is frequently perceived as time-consuming and tedious. However, it is critical to determine not only what was done and how it was done, but also how well it was done. Answering the following three key questions is a simple way to conduct critical appraisal:
What were the study’s findings? (In other words, what evidence is there?)
How valid are the results? (Can they be relied on?)
Will the findings be useful in the care of future patients? (Can they be transferred?)
EBP’s final steps
The final steps of the EBP process include integrating the evidence with clinical expertise, taking patient preferences into account, and evaluating the effectiveness of applying the evidence. Disseminating or reporting the outcomes of EBP projects may assist others in learning about and implementing the best evidence. Implementing an evidence-based clinical practice guideline to reduce or prevent CAUTIs, evaluating an evidence-based intervention to improve wound healing, and using an EBP to improve compliance with a specific treatment for a chronic disease are all examples of potential EBP projects.
Understanding Quality Assurance
The goal of quality improvement is to use a systematic, data-driven approach to improve processes or outcomes. QI principles and strategies evolved from total quality management and continuous quality improvement organizational philosophies.
While quality is a subjective concept, QI in healthcare typically focuses on improving patient outcomes. The key is to clearly define the outcome that needs to be improved, determine how the outcome will be measured, and create a plan for implementing an intervention and collecting data before and after the intervention.
Methods of quality assurance
There are numerous QI methods available. The acronym FOCUS-PDSA is a common format:
Find a way to improve the process.
Make a concerted effort to improve.
Clarify your current understanding of the process.
Recognize process variability and performance capability.
Select changes aimed at performance improvement.
Plan the change, analyze the current data, and forecast the outcomes.
Do it; carry out the plan.
Examine the new data (analyze it) and compare the results.
Take action to maintain your gains.
In contrast to research and EBP, QI usually does not necessitate extensive literature reviews and rigorous critical appraisal. As a result, nurses may be more involved in QI projects than in EBP or research. Furthermore, QI projects are typically site specific, and the results are not intended to provide generalizable knowledge or the best evidence. Implementing a process to remove urinary catheters within a certain time frame, developing a process to improve wound-care documentation, and improving the process for patient education for a specific chronic disease are all examples of QI projects. Nursing procedure:
The nursing process is a step-by-step guide for providing client-centered care. It consists of five steps: client assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment implementation, and outcome evaluation. The nursing process’s goal is to develop a rational method of treatment for providing adequate nursing care.
Explanation and response:
There are parallels between the nursing and research processes.
They’re both sequential procedures, which means you have to go through each step in order to get to the end result.
Both processes must be carried out by professionals in their respective fields who have the necessary experience and skills.
There are distinctions between the nursing and research processes.
The goals of the research and nursing processes are not the same. The research process is used to determine the outcome in a specific field in order to generate new knowledge, whereas the nursing process is used to plan and implement healthcare plans for the client’s care.
The research process is more rigorously implemented than the nursing process.
The outcome of the research process is simply the production of knowledge, whereas the results of nursing research will be used to make changes in the client’s treatment plan.