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Translation Nursing

Translation Nursing

Translation Nursing

QUESTION
This is part B to the PICOT paper. Please note that I would like a different writer than the one who wrote paper A. Unfortunately part A was not well done, although I got a passing grade. I have had excellent grades in the past with the exception of the last PICOT paper. The instructions are clear. Please double proof for grammatical errors.
Translation Nursing

ANSWER
Translation Nursing
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Introduction
Obesity during young age is a complex health issue and normally occurs when a child is above the normal weight for his or her age. The excessive weight gain in young kids is similar to those in adults, which comprise behavior and genetics. The causes of obesity in children and adults are also rooted in the person’s community because culture affects the ability to make healthy choices. This paper shall focus on African American children as obesity rates are more pronounced than other racial ethnicities. This paper shall uncover the various psychological and social dispositions that facilitate the growth of this phenomenon among African American children (Trude et al., 2018).
Such behaviors that fuel excessive weight gain comprise eating high-calorie foods, foods with low nutritional indexes, and beverages. This also includes a lack of physical activity and sedentary activities that don’t involve too much movement. Population – Obesity among African American children, Intervention- School-based Health centers and health promotion Comparison- children from other races and better socioeconomic backgrounds Outcome- improved diet health and reduced body mass index of African American children.
Methods
The following articles provide the most comprehensive information on the prevalence of obesity among African American children and the causes of the same. These articles are the most recent ones in the subject written by authors who have a community touch and reputable in the field. These articles may also give the perspectives of stakeholders in the African American communities concerning overweight children. Others talk about preventive as well as mitigative measures around the problem.

Part A
Assari, S., & Caldwell, C. (2017). Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity. Children, 4(5), 36.
This article focuses on the familial environment’s role in creating the risk of obesity among the youth who have dwelled on parenting behaviors in non-representative white samples. By adopting the use of black adolescents and youth, this study tested the association of lack of or low family support and the risk of obesity. The diversity of this data was accounted for based on gender, ethnicity, and intersection. Data from the National Survey of American Life – Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a survey of Black adolescents in the United States (Hess et al., 2015). It comprises the participation of 1170 African American as well as Caribbean Black 13-17-year-old youth.

Lavner, J., Stansfield, B., Beach, S., Brody, G., & Birch, L. (2019). Sleep SAAF: a responsive parenting intervention to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity among African American infants. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1).
This article addresses how parenting interventions in the domain of soothing and sleep, feeding that is responsive and appropriate, and routines represent an approach to early prevention of obesity. Nonetheless, this way forward has not been adopted to populations that are at the risk of early onset of obesity, including African Americans. The sleep study, also abbreviated as Strong African American Families study, is a clinical trial that is randomized featuring two arms, namely; an evaluation of whether a responsive intervention by parents that is focused on the promotion of infant sleep and self-soothing can prevent rapid weight in the first six among first-born African American infants. This parenting intervention is compared to child safety control intervention.
Molitor, F., & Doerr, C. (2020). The Risk of Obesity for Children with Obese Mothers is Greater for Latinos and African Americans Than Whites from Low-Income Households. Current Developments in Nutrition, 4(Supplement_2), 1663-1663.
The objective is to investigate whether the intensity of an increased risk of obesity from having an obese mother is higher for children from specific ethnicities. Childhood overweight is associated with a diverse range of health risks comprising diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancer types. As measured by the Body Mass Index or overweight status, the father and mother’s weights are significant factors for overweight childhood instances.
Specific ethnic groups such as Latino and African Americans are highly predisposed to obesity than Asian or white children.
Few Investigations have been carried out to ascertain the link between parental and childhood obesity differences across racial groups. From the year 2013, the California Family health study telephone survey has been conducted annually by the California Fresh and healthy living. The survey includes inquiries about the weight and the height of low-income adults and children in California. This research study adopted three years of California health study data to assess the extent of children’s risk for obesity, which is directly associated with having an obese parent across different racial groups.
Porter, L., Shriver, L., & Ramsay, S. (2016). Maternal Perceptions Related to Eating and Obesity Risk Among Low-Income African American Preschoolers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(12), 2565-2572.
The health differences present in the United States among households of low-income African American children suffering from high instances of overweight cases and related conditions. A comprehensive understanding of parents and shortcomings associated with a healthy diet and the risk of obesity speak of more needed effective intervention focus of this population that is at risk. The methods of this research involved African American caregivers of children between the ages of 3- 5-year-old children who were recruited for specific focus groups and were required to complete a questionnaire form two programs that had started earlier in a southeastern state of the United States.
The social cognitive theory was used in the development of a focus group guide. The results of the group recordings (through transcription and analysis resulted in the following main themes; General nutritional knowledge but common misconceptions concerning food and beverages, the belief that meals have to include meat and starch and required to be home-cooked to be healthy, desire to feed children better than their parents, the absence of family support and child pickiness as the greatest drawback to eating healthy, awareness of the family history of diseases, minimal concern about children’s current diet and weight status. About 25 percent of mothers or more underestimate the weight status of their child.
Schulte, E., Jacques-Tiura, A., Gearhardt, A., & Naar, S. (2018). Food addiction prevalence and concurrent validity in African American adolescents with obesity. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(2), 187-196.
According to the Yale Food Addiction Scale, food addiction has been linked with obesity, as well as eating –related problems, for instance, binge eating and the over consumption of highly processed foods, which proves to be problematic with time. Most research studies have looked into adult samples, with a majority being white individuals. Little is known about adolescents, specifically African Americans, who display high obesity rates and eating abnormal eating pathology. This study investigated food addiction prevalence and its association with obesity and eating-related problems and self-reported dietary intake in a sample of 181 African American adolescents with obesity.
Almost 10% of participants met together for food addiction and measured by the Yale Food Addiction Scale. C scores were strongly associated with binge eating that was personally objective binge eating episodes. Significant relationships were also observed with objective overeating episodes of overacting episodes (OOE) percent overweight relative to age and sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) and also subjective binge episodes (SBE). C scores were also directly related to greater consumption of all nutrient characteristics of interest, which include (calories, saturated and trans-fat, excessive carbohydrates, and added sugar). These nutrients are commonly present in foods that are highly processed.
The results of these studies show that a combination of exhibiting loss of control while consuming an objectively large amount of food appears to be most implicated in food addiction for African American adolescents with obesity. Further, individuals suffering from food addiction may consume heightened processed foods, relative to those without addictive-like eating.

Part B
The articles used above address a variety of issues affecting the African American community about obesity. There are greatly different as they talk about similar themes but in different contextual fields. In the first article (Assari & Caldwell, 2017), advocating for programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent overweight adolescents among African American female youth. This article recommends future research testing the efficacy of family support as a tool for obesity prevention among African American female youth.
This also supplements the data found by the second article cited, as parental support is vital in establishing interventions such as sleep soothing and appropriate feeding routines. The third article (Molitor & Doerr, 2020) investigates the relationship between the possibility of having parents that are overweight to the risk of children having similar complications during their young lives. The study concluded that there are direct relationships attributed to culture as well as genetics. The fourth article has a significant bearing on the maternal condition.
(Porter et al., 2016) concludes their findings by highlighting the importance of comprehending different mothers’ perspectives with relation to feeding and weight, especially among low-income African American mothers. The last article reveals the prevalence of obesity among young African American children with obesity and eating disorders.
Areas of Further Study And Recommendations
A variety of articles have been used to analyze some of the major contributors to obesity among African American children. More factors lead to obesity and food addiction behaviors among African American Children (Ash et al., 2017). There is a lack of data in ascertaining a variety of obesity causes among children in this specific racial group. Nurse practitioners should be aware of the misconception that mothers don’t take infant quality diet keenly and have an importance on the child’s future health. Health promotion activities are thereby encouraged to help advocate for healthy diets, increased physical activities.

References

Ash, T., Agaronov, A., Young, T., Aftosmes-Tobio, A., & Davison, K. (2017). Family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions: a systematic review and quantitative content analysis. International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity, 14(1).
Assari, S., & Caldwell, C. (2017). Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity. Children, 4(5), 36.
Hess, C., Ofei, A., & Mincher, A. (2015). Breastfeeding and Childhood Obesity Among African Americans. MCN, The American Journal Of Maternal/Child Nursing, 40(5), 313-319.
Lavner, J., Stansfield, B., Beach, S., Brody, G., & Birch, L. (2019). Sleep SAAF: a responsive parenting intervention to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity among African American infants. BMC Pediatrics, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1583-7
Molitor, F., & Doerr, C. (2020). The Risk of Obesity for Children with Obese Mothers is Greater for Latinos and African Americans Than Whites from Low-Income Households. Current Developments In Nutrition, 4(Supplement_2), 1663-1663.
Porter, L., Shriver, L., & Ramsay, S. (2016). Maternal Perceptions Related to Eating and Obesity Risk Among Low-Income African American Preschoolers. Maternal And Child Health Journal, 20(12), 2565-2572.
Schulte, E., Jacques-Tiura, A., Gearhardt, A., & Naar, S. (2018). Food addiction prevalence and concurrent validity in African American adolescents with obesity. Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors, 32(2), 187-196.
Trude, A., Surkan, P., Anderson Steeves, E., Pollack Porter, K., & Gittelsohn, J. (2018). The impact of a multilevel childhood obesity prevention intervention on healthful food acquisition, preparation, and fruit and vegetable consumption on African-American adult caregivers. Public Health Nutrition, 1-16.
Translation Nursing

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