Systems in the human body
Organ Systems Research Paper (A&P I)
Due: Check the research paper submission link in Moodle
Submission: The Word document should be uploaded to TurnItIn using the research paper
submission link in Moodle.
Format: APA format (see Purdue OWL website for proper formatting of cover page, section
headings, and citations), double spaced, 12 pt. font, 1” margins, Times New Roman, no direct
quotations (practice paraphrasing). No set page length – as long as it takes to cover all details
for each paper section. At least 5 scholarly citations.
Every animal has body systems that carry out specific jobs in the body to keep the
organism alive. We are examining the following organ systems in this course:
Your task is to choose two human organ systems on which you would like to do research and
write about their anatomy and physiology and any disorders associated with those systems.
Please let me know which two body systems you choose no later than February 7, 2021.
Paper Sections (each section – except cover page – should be at least 1 well-formed
paragraph and should have a section heading):
1. Cover Page – APA format. Be sure to include a running head, an informative title, your
name, campus location, date, instructor name, and class section and period.
2. Introduction – Introduce the human body systems you are comparing. Which body
systems are you discussing? What is their main role or roles in the body? End with a
thesis statement building up to the following sections on the body systems. This thesis
statement should be something that you can argue/support with the body of the paper.
This can involve something your chosen body systems have in common (a common
function they share or ways that they work together to keep us alive). Basically the
thesis is a statement of what you are trying to show or convince the reader of with your
paper. Include citations.
3. Choose two of the body systems listed above to research and write about in your
paper. You will have the following subheadings for each body system you are writing
1. Anatomy – Describe the organs that make up the system in humans.
2. Physiology – Explain how the system works in humans. You must include some
form of calculation or interpretation of numerical values in your description of
physiology. For the nervous system, for example, you could discuss the different
electrical charges involved in a nerve impulse. Just be sure, for whichever body
systems you choose, to explain a component of the system that requires
numerical values and/or calculations.
3. Disorders – Describe any disorders associated with the system, and how or if
those disorders affect the homeostasis, behavior, and/or lifespan of humans.
4. Integration – How do your chosen body systems interact with each other? How are
they dependent on each other for proper functioning of the body?
5. Conclusion – Treat this as a “back of the book cover” summary of your research paper.
Challenge yourself to summarize the most important concepts in your paper in about
6. Literature Cited – You all know my policy on plagiarism. Don’t do it or there will be
consequences. This applies not only to plagiarism of another student’s work but also of
a reference material. You must appropriately cite, in APA format, all material used. Be
sure to use your own words in your paper. This will ensure that you understand the
material to the best degree possible. Click here to see examples of how to create
proper in-text and reference list citations in APA format. The “Library Resources” link
under the “Helpful Resources” heading on the General Course Information page will be
of help in finding scholarly sources for your paper. Sources should always be listed
alphabetically by author’s last name, and there must always be a source listed at the
end of the paper that matches up with an in-text citation in the body of the
paper. There should never be an in-text citation that does not match up to a source
listed at the end, or a source at the end that does not match up with an in-text citation.
Acceptable scholarly sources include: hardcopy books, eBooks (including your eText),
scientific articles, scientific magazines (National Geographic, Scientific American,
Popular Science, Discover Magazine, etc.).
1. Use the library’s online database to help you search for proper material. The
Academic Search Complete is a large database full of research articles. There is
also an eBook database for electronic textbooks
2. Unacceptable sources – Wikipedia, Ask.com, other non-science websites, really
websites in general. I will deduct points for not using proper sources.
3. You must use in-text citations. It is not enough to list your literature cited at the
end of the paper, you must also make notations in the body of your paper to
show where each of your facts came from. Failure to properly cite within the
body is a form of plagiarism.
Submit your paper in the “Research Paper Submission” link in Moodle by the deadline given at
the top of this page and the submission link itself.
Systems in the human body
Body Systems Research Paper
Course Name and Number
Body Systems Research Paper
The human body consists of different systems, all properly coordinated to ensure individual functions normally. Each body system has its role, and due to the interaction between different body systems, a disorder in one system could result in reduced efficiency of other systems. The renal and the respiratory systems are among such systems, with very critical roles in the normal functioning of any individual. The renal system has various roles. Some of the main roles include removing metabolic waste products from the body, osmoregulation, and electrolyte balance (Herold, 2016). Similarly, the respiratory system has essential roles necessary to sustain life, the main role being gaseous exchange (Hogan & Tata, 2018). This paper focuses on the anatomy, physiology, and disorders associated with these two systems, and lastly, the integration between the two systems.
The renal system is composed of the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. These two kidneys consist of the nephrons, which are the functional unit of the kidneys, and the parts responsible for urine formation (Herold, 2016). The other parts, such as the ureters, allow the passage of urine down from the renal pelvis into the bladder, where it is temporarily stored, awaiting a signal to initiate micturition through the urethra to the outside environment (Herold, 2016). The respiratory system is composed of organs and parts which facilitate the movement of air and gaseous exchange. These parts and organs which constitute the respiratory system include; the upper respiratory tract, which consists of the nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses, made of the pharynx and the larynx (VanPutte et al., 2021). The lower respiratory tract consists of bronchi, smaller bronchioles, two lungs, and the alveoli.
The various roles carried out by the renal system constitute its physiology. These include the removal of toxic wastes and metabolic substances from the body. The mechanism which enhances this function includes glomerular filtration, which selectively filters out metabolic wastes and retains the essentials in the system (Ogobuiro & Tuma, 2019). The essential substances which are filtered are also reabsorbed back into the system to minimize losses. The normal Glomerular Filtration Pressure (GFR) is between 120 to 125ml/min, which diminishes significantly with kidney diseases and failure (Ogobuiro & Tuma, 2019). The renal system also regulates the amount of solute, water, and ions in the body, through the exchange of ions and reabsorption or loss of water depending on the demand by the body. Through this, the renal system, therefore, helps in osmoregulation. This system is also responsible for secreting renin, which is necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) (Ogobuiro & Tuma, 2019). Through the production of erythropoietin, the renal system helps in the production of red blood cells. The renal system coordinates the storage and eventual voiding of the urine through the interaction with the nervous system.
The primary role of the respiratory system is the gaseous exchange, which involves delivering oxygen into the blood, ad removal of carbon dioxide from the body (VanPutte et al., 2021). To efficiently carry out this function, certain events are necessary that include; pulmonary ventilation, commonly known as breathing, and involves movement of air into and out of the lungs. The second event is external respiration, which involves a gaseous exchange between the alveoli and the pulmonary blood (VanPutte et al., 2021). Thirdly, respiratory gas should be transported to and from the lungs and body tissues via the bloodstream. Lastly, internal respiration must occur, involving a gaseous exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
There are many disorders associated with each of these systems. These disorders cause significant impairment on these systems, especially their ability to function efficiently. This subsequently leads to a shortened lifespan of affected individuals if such disorders are not promptly addressed. Some of the disorders associated with the renal system include; polycystic kidney disease, enlarged prostate in men, renal stones, and renal failure, among others (Herold, 2016). Some respiratory system disorders include; asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, lung cancers, and pneumonia (Arca-Ruibal, 2016).
As aforementioned, different body systems interact to ensure the adequate functioning of the body. The renal and the respiratory systems are closely related, especially in the regulation of acid-base balance (Hamm et al., 2015). Whenever there is an acid-base balance, these two systems work in a compensatory mechanism to balance body acids and bases.
In summary, different body systems are interconnected, both anatomically and physiologically, to enhance their proper functioning. The renal and the respiratory system, which formed the basis of this discussion, are two of these body systems. Each of the systems has its major roles in ensuring a healthy life. However, they also interact in some functions to enhance the normal functioning of the body. Understanding these interactions is necessary to enhance a better and multisystem approach to disease conditions.
Arca-Ruibal, B. (2016). Disorders of the respiratory system. Avian Medicine., 2016, 385-395. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=xCtgDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA385&dq=respiratory+system+anatomy&ots=06pBp0UZO9&sig=4RSamsQA3DFrgf6IZVSTgSoNWUk
Hamm, L. L., Nakhoul, N., & Hering-Smith, K. S. (2015). Acid-base homeostasis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 10(12), 2232-2242. https://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/10/12/2232.short
Herold, L. (2016). The renal system. Monitoring and Intervention for the Critically Ill Small Animal: The Rule of 20, 225-245. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/9781118923870.ch13
Hogan, B., & Tata, P. R. (2018). Cellular organization and biology of the respiratory system. Nature, 560, 377-381. https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/19464/2019-.pdf?sequence=2
Ogobuiro, I., & Tuma, F. (2019). Physiology, renal. https://europepmc.org/article/nbk/nbk538339
VanPutte, C. L. Regan, J. L., & Russo, A. F. (2021). Seeley’s essentials of anatomy & physiology. University of Iowa. https://iro.uiowa.edu/esploro/outputs/book/Seeleys-essentials-of-anatomy–physiology/9984077379202771