Types Of Diabetes And Medication
Diabetes is a disease that causes high blood glucose (sugar) levels in the body.
This reaction occurs when your body cannot produce or use the hormone insulin as it should. Insulin, produced by the pancreas, aids your body’s use of sugar from food.
Diabetes is classified into type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. People with either type of diabetes require medications to help them manage their blood sugar levels.
The medications you take will be determined by the type of diabetes you have. Learn more about the treatment options available.
Type 1 diabetes medications
Your body cannot produce insulin if you have type 1 diabetes. The treatment aims to replace the insulin your pancreas cannot produce.
Insulin is the most commonly used type of medication in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In the United States, more than 20 varieties are available.
It is administered as an infusion under the skin (using an insulin pump) or as an injection.
Insulin comes in a variety of forms. They differ in how quickly they begin working, how long they work, and whether or not they have a peak activity level.
The type of insulin you require is determined by your body’s insulin sensitivity and the severity of your insulin deficiency. These are some examples:
Insulin that acts quickly:
Insulin, whether regular or “short-acting,” can enter the bloodstream 30 minutes after injection and peak 2-3 hours later. These injections are also effective for 3-6 hours.
Regular insulin comes in the following varieties:
- U-100 Humulin R
- FlexPen Novolin R
- Novolin R Reliable
- ReliOn Novolin R FlexPen
Insulin that acts quickly:
Rapid-acting insulin, as the name implies, works in 15 minutes. The medication has a peak time of 1 to 2 hours after use and a duration of 2 to 4 hours.
A rapid-acting insulin is available in the following forms:
- insulin inhaled (Afrezza)
- Aspartame insulin (Fiasp, Fiasp FlexTouch, Fiasp PenFill, NovoLog, NovoLog FlexPen, NovoLog FlexTouch, NovoLog PenFill, ReliOn NovoLog, ReliOn NovoLog FlexPen)
- Insulin glulisine (Apidra, Apidra SoloStar), which is only available under the brand name
- lispro insulin (Admelog, Admelog SoloStar, Humalog, Humalog KwikPen, Humalog Junior KwikPen)
- lispro-aabc insulin (Lyumjev, Lyumjev KwikPen)
Insulin with intermediate action:
Intermediate-acting insulin begins to work about 2-4 hours after administration, with an average peak time of 12 hours. This type of insulin should last between 12 and 18 hours.
Here are some examples:
Isophane insulin (Humulin N U-100, Humulin N KwikPen, Novolin N, Novolin N FlexPen, Novolin N ReliOn, Novolin N FlexPen ReliOn)
Insulin that acts slowly:
Long-acting insulin lowers blood glucose levels for up to 24 hours or longer and enters the bloodstream more gradually.
Long-acting insulin is available in the following forms:
- Degludec insulin (Tresiba, Tresiba FlexTouch)
- Detemir insulin (Levemir)
- glargine insulin (Basaglar KwikPen, Lantus, Lantus SoloStar, Toujeo SoloStar, Toujeo Max SoloStar)
- yfgn insulin glargine (Semglee-yfgn)
- regular concentrated insulin (Humulin R U-500, Humulin R U-500 KwikPen)
- Insulins in combination (premixed):
- Protamine/insulin aspart 70/30 insulin aspart (NovoLog Mix 70/30, NovoLog Mix 70/30 FlexPen)
- (Humulin 70/30, Humulin 70/30 KwikPen, Novolin 70/30, Novolin 70/30 FlexPen, Novolin 70/30 FlexPen ReliOn) insulin isophane/regular insulin 70/30 (Humulin 70/30, Humulin 70/30 FlexPen ReliOn)
- (Humalog Mix 50/50, Humalog Mix 50/50 KwikPen) insulin lispro protamine/insulin lispro 50/50
- (Humalog Mix 75/25, Humalog Mix 75/25 KwikPen) insulin lispro protamine/insulin lispro 75/25
SymlinPen (pramlintide) is an amylinomimetic. It is an injectable medication that is administered prior to meals.
It works by delaying the time it takes your stomach to empty itself. It also reduces the hormone glucagon secretion after meals. These actions reduce your blood sugar levels.
Pramlintide also suppresses appetite.
Type 2 diabetes medications
When you have type 2 diabetes, your body produces insulin but no longer uses it effectively. Your body cannot produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
The goal of your treatment is to help your body use insulin more effectively or to eliminate excess glucose in your blood.
The majority of type 2 diabetes medications are taken orally. Insulin or injectables, on the other hand, may be used. Some of these medications are combinations of multiple diabetes medications.
Some people with type 2 diabetes may also require insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes can be treated with the same insulin that is used to treat type 1 diabetes.
A doctor may recommend the same insulin types used in type 1 diabetes treatment for type 2 diabetes. As with type 1 diabetes, this is determined by the type of insulin required and the severity of your insulin deficiency. Consult your doctor about the insulin types listed above.
Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase
These medications aid your body’s digestion of starchy foods and table sugar. This has the effect of lowering your blood sugar levels.
These medications will not cause hypoglycemia if taken as directed (low blood sugar). However, if you combine them with other diabetes medications, your risk of hypoglycemia may increase.
Take alpha-glucosidase inhibitors before meals for the best results. Among these medications are:
- miglitol (Glyset) (Glyset)
Biguanides reduce the amount of glucose produced by your liver. They also reduce the amount of glucose absorbed by your intestines, help your muscles absorb glucose, and make your body more sensitive to insulin.
Metformin is the most commonly used biguanide (Glumetza, Riomet, Riomet ER).
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral type 2 diabetes medication, and it can also be combined with other type 2 diabetes medications. It is found in the following medications:
- metformin-alogliptin (Kazano) (Kazano)
- metformin-canagliflozin (Invokamet) (Invokamet)
- metformin-dapagliflozin (Xigduo XR) (Xigduo XR)
- metformin-empagliflozin (Synjardy) (Synjardy)
- metmorfin-ertugliflozin (Segluromet) (Segluromet)
- metformin-glyburide (Glucovance) (Glucovance)
- metformin-linagliptin (Jentadueto, Jentadueto XR) (Jentadueto, Jentadueto XR)
- metformin-pioglitazone (Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR) (Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR)
- metformin-repaglinide (PrandiMet) (PrandiMet)
- metformin-rosiglitazone (Avandamet) (Avandamet)
- metformin-saxagliptin (Kombiglyze XR) (Kombiglyze XR)
- metformin-sitagliptin (Janumet, Janumet XR) (Janumet, Janumet XR)
- Agonist of dopamine-2
- Dopamine-2 agonist bromocriptine (Cycloset, Parlodel).
It is unclear how this drug treats type 2 diabetes. It may influence your body’s rhythms and help prevent insulin resistance. Dopamine-2 agonists, according to one 2015 review trusted Source, may also improve other related health concerns, such as high cholesterol or weight management.
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)
DPP-4 inhibitors are used to help lower blood sugar levels while avoiding hypoglycemia.
DPP-4 inhibitors prevent the DPP-4 enzyme from working. This enzyme destroys incretin, a hormone that usually aids your body in producing insulin when required. Incretins also reduce glucose output from the liver when the body does not require it.
These medications can also assist the pancreas in producing more insulin.
DPP-4 inhibitors include the following:
- alogliptin (Nesina) (Nesina)
- alogliptin-metformin (Kazano) (Kazano)
- linagliptin (Tradjenta) (Tradjenta)
- linagliptin-empagliflozin (Glyxambi) (Glyxambi)
- linagliptin-metformin (Jentadueto, Jentadueto XR) (Jentadueto, Jentadueto XR)
- saxagliptin (Onglyza) (Onglyza)
- saxagliptin-metformin (Kombiglyze XR) (Kombiglyze XR)
- sitagliptin (Januvia) (Januvia)
- sitagliptin-metformin (Janumet and Janumet XR) (Janumet and Janumet XR)
- Simvastatin and sitagliptin (Juvisync)
- Agonists of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1 receptor agonists)
GLP-1 receptor agonists, similar to incretin, may be prescribed alongside a diet and exercise plan to help promote better glycemic control.
They increase the amount of insulin your body uses and the growth of pancreatic beta cells. They reduce your appetite and the amount of glucagon your body produces. They also slow stomach emptying, which may help you maintain or lose weight by increasing nutrient absorption from the foods you eat.
All of these are critical actions for people with diabetes.
Some people’s diabetes may be overshadowed by atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease. In these cases, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends specific GLP-1 receptor agonists as part of an antihyperglycemic treatment regimen.
These medications include:
- dulaglutide (Trulicity) (Trulicity)
- exenatide (Byetta) (Byetta)
- exenatide extended-release (Bydureon BCise) (Bydureon BCise)
- liraglutide (Saxenda, Victoza) (Saxenda, Victoza)
- lixisenatide (Adylyxin) (Adylyxin)
- semaglutide (Ozempic) (Ozempic)
- tirzepatide (Mounjaro) (Mounjaro)
These medications assist your body in producing insulin. They are, however, not for everyone. In some cases, they may lower your blood sugar too much, especially if you have advanced kidney disease.
These medications include:
- nateglinide (Starlix) (Starlix)
- repaglinide (Prandin) (Prandin)
- Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) 2
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) 2 prevent the kidneys from storing glucose. Instead, the glucose is excreted by your body through your urine.
Again, the ADA recommends SGLT2 inhibitors as a possible treatment option in cases of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease. Examples include the following:
- canagliflozin (Invokana) (Invokana)
- canagliflozin-metformin (Invokamet, Invokamet XR) (Invokamet, Invokamet XR)
- dapagliflozin (Farxiga) (Farxiga)
- dapagliflozin-metformin (Xigduo XR) (Xigduo XR)
- dapagliflozin-saxagliptin (Qtern) (Qtern)
- empagliflozin (Jardiance) (Jardiance)
- empagliflozin-linagliptin (Glyxambi) (Glyxambi)
- empaglifozin-linagliptin-metmorfin (Trijardy XR) (Trijardy XR)
- empagliflozin-metformin (Synjardy, Synjardy XR) (Synjardy, Synjardy XR)
- ertugliflozin (Steglatro) (Steglatro)
These are some of the oldest diabetes medications still in use today. They work by stimulating the pancreas via beta cells. As a result, your body produces more insulin.
These medications include:
- glimepiride (Amaryl) (Amaryl)
- glimepiride-pioglitazone (Duetact) (Duetact)
- glipizide extended-release (Glipizide XL, Glucotrol XL)
- glyburide (Glynase) (Glynase)
Thiazolidinediones work by lowering glucose levels in the liver. They also improve the use of insulin by your fat cells by targeting insulin resistanceTrusted Source.
These medications increase the risk of heart disease. If your doctor prescribes one of these medications, they will monitor your heart function during treatment.
Among the options are:
pioglitazone-alogliptin (Oseni) (Oseni)
pioglitazone-glimepiride (Duetact) (Duetact)
pioglitazone-metformin (Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR) (Actoplus Met, Actoplus Met XR)
People with type 1 and type 2 diabetes frequently require additional medications to treat diabetes-related conditions.
These medications may include;
- Trusted Sources.
- Aspirin for cardiovascular health
- cholesterol-lowering medications
- Medication for high blood pressure
- Consult a physician.
There are numerous medications available to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes. They each help you control your blood sugar in different ways.
Consult your doctor to determine which diabetes medication is best for you. They will make recommendations based on your diabetes type, health, and other factors. It’s also important to know that new diabetes medications are constantly being evaluated for approval.
Types Of Diabetes And Medication
1 page explanation of the differences between the types of diabetes, including type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Describe one type of drug used to treat each type of diabetes including proper preparation and administration of this drug. Be sure to include dietary considerations related to treatment. Then, explain the short-term and long-term impact of this type of diabetes on patients. including effects of drug treatments. Be specific and provide examples.