Skin & Breast
A change in the color or texture of the breast or areola skin is a significant symptom of breast carcinoma. Dimpling, puckering, or scaliness should be investigated further. The presence of unusually prominent pores, indicating skin edema, is a crucial indicator of cancer. This clinical sign is peau d’orange, a French term that translates to “orange peel” or “orange skin.” It refers to a symptom in which the skin becomes thick and pitted, with the texture and appearance of orange peel. The lymphatic vessels of the breast are dilated and contain occasional emboli of carcinoma cells during the early stages of breast carcinoma. There is some orange skin on the lower half of the areola. As the disease progresses, more lymphatic vessels become clogged with carcinoma cells, resulting in more widespread edema.
The follicle epithelium produces hair.
The hair follicle is an epithelial tubular structure that opens onto the epidermal surface. A bulbous expansion (the hair bulb) with a concave lower surface contains a specialized dermis area called the hair papilla at its lower end. This is densely packed with myelinated and non-myelinated nerve endings and numerous small blood vessels.
Numerous small, actively proliferating germinative cells in the hair bulb produce the hair shaft and the internal root sheath, which lie within the external root sheath.
The cytoplasm of germinal hair bulb cells is dark basophilic, with a scattering of melanocytes.
The hair follicle’s internal root sheath is made up of three layers:
• Henle’s layer (a single-cell layer)
• A thicker layer distinguished by large eosinophilic trichohyalin granules
• The cuticle is made up of overlapping keratin plates.
In the lower regions of the hair follicle, the cuticle is continuous with the cuticle of the hair shaft (see below).
Keratinization occurs in the internal root sheath to produce the hair shaft. It extends up from the hair bulb to the level of the sebaceous gland insertion, where it disintegrates, leaving a potential space around the hair shaft into which sebaceous gland products are secreted.
Skin & Breast
This discussion contains 2 parts:
- KM is a 38-year-old white woman with a 6-year history of psoriasis. Her family history includes allergies and asthma and her mother with psoriasis. KM returns today for an increase in symptoms, and she wants to improve the appearance of her skin. Please discuss the following:
- What is the underlying cause of psoriasis?
- What are the common signs and symptoms of this disease?
- Define, Compare and Contrast the following conditions:
- Fibrocystic breast disease
- Malignant breast tumor
- Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in proper current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources.