An abrupt, uncontrolled electrical disruption in the brain is a seizure. Your actions, emotions, feelings, and consciousness levels may change. Epilepsy is typically defined as having two or more unprovoked seizures that occur more than 24 hours apart.
There are numerous varieties of seizures, with symptoms and intensity varying. The location in the brain where a seizure starts and how far it spreads determine the type of seizure. The majority of seizures last between 30 and two minutes. A medical emergency is when a seizure lasts more than five minutes.
Less frequently than you may imagine, seizures occur. After a stroke, a closed head injury, an infection like meningitis, or another condition, seizures can occur. However, the reason for a seizure is frequently unknown.
Most seizure disorders are treatable with medicine, yet seizure control can still significantly influence your everyday life. The good news is that you may collaborate with your doctor to find a balance between drug side effects and seizure management.
The signs and symptoms of a seizure might vary depending on the type of seizure and can be mild to severe. Some seizure warning signs and symptoms include:
a bout of staring
jerky, uncontrollable arm, and leg movements
loss of awareness or consciousness
symptoms of the mind or the heart, such as fear, worry, or déjà vu
Doctors typically categorize seizures as either focal or generalized depending on how and where aberrant brain activity starts. If the cause of the seizure is uncertain, it may also be categorized as having an undetermined onset.
Abnormal electrical activity in one part of your brain causes focal seizures. Loss of consciousness is not always a need for focal seizures:
Focal seizures accompanied by altered awareness cause a shift in consciousness or loss of awareness that feels like a dream. You may appear awake, yet you either make repeated actions or stare out into space without responding correctly to your surroundings. These behaviors could involve mouth movements, hand rubbing, repeating certain words, or even circling. It’s possible that you won’t even be aware of or recall having the seizure.
Seizures in a single area without losing consciousness. You don’t lose consciousness during these seizures, but they may change your emotions or how things feel, look, smell, taste, or sound. You can feel happy, sad, or angry all of a sudden. Some people experience nausea or other strange, hard-to-explain sensations. Speaking difficulties, uncontrollable jerking of a body part, such as an arm or a leg, and spontaneous sensory symptoms, such as tingling, vertigo, and seeing flashing lights, may also be brought on by these seizures.
Focal seizure symptoms can be mistaken for those of other neurological conditions like migraine, narcolepsy, or mental illness.
Generalized seizures appear to affect all brain parts and are distinguished from focal seizures. Generalized seizures come in various forms, including:
Seizures while away. Children frequently experience absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, characterized by staring off into space or minute body movements like lip smacking or eye blinking. Most of the time, they last five to ten seconds, but they can occur several hundred times a day. Clusters of these seizures are possible and can briefly render a person unconscious.
Tonic convulsions Your muscles stiffen as a result of tonic seizures. These seizures typically affect your back, arms, and legs, which can make you pass out and drop to the ground.
Atonic convulsions Drop seizures also referred to as atonic seizures, are characterized by a loss of muscle control that can make you suddenly pass out, fall to the ground, or drop your head.
Seizures with clonus. Clonic seizures are characterized by jerking, repetitive, or rhythmic muscle movements. These seizures typically affect the neck, face, and arms on both sides of the body.
Myoclonic convulsions Your arms and legs will typically jerk briefly or twitch during myoclonic seizures. In many cases, there is no loss of consciousness.
Seizures with tonic clonus. The most severe form of an epileptic seizure, tonic-clonic seizures—previously known as grand mal seizures—can result in an abrupt loss of consciousness, stiffening and shaking of the body, and occasionally loss of bladder control or tongue-biting. They might go on for a while.
concept, classification, complications, risk factors, treatment and nursing considerations