Pathogens invading the urethra, bladder, or kidneys cause urinary tract infections (UTIs). They are one of the most common infections acquired in a hospital. A catheter-associated urinary tract infection occurs when this type of infection occurs as a result of urinary catheterization (CAUTI.) There are numerous guidelines available to help prevent nosocomial UTIs and CAUTIs.
UTIs are more common in women and older adults outside of healthcare settings. Urinary tract infections must be identified and treated as soon as possible to avoid kidney damage and loss of renal function.
A variety of pathogens can cause urinary tract infections. Microbes from the perineum can enter the urethra and multiply inside the urinary tract, resulting in these infections. Escherichia coli is commonly responsible for this type of infection. However, some viruses and fungi can also cause UTIs.
Symptoms and Signs
Urinary urgency and frequency, as well as painful urination or burning sensations when urinating, are the most common symptoms of urinary tract infections. Other symptoms of UTIs include cloudy or foul-smelling urine, as well as blood in the urine. A more severe urinary tract infection may cause flank, back, or suprapubic pain or tenderness. Cognitive changes or the onset of incontinence in older adults may indicate a UTI. Fever, elevated white blood cell count, and fatigue, as with other types of infections, are also indicators of a urinary tract infection.
Patient education can be very helpful in preventing UTIs. Educating patients on proper hygiene and hydration techniques can help to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections.
Avoiding the use of urinary catheters when possible for patients in hospitals or other care facilities reduces CAUTI rates significantly. To prevent nosocomial UTIs, aseptic catheter insertion techniques are also essential. Regular and thorough perineal and catheter care are critical for infection prevention in catheterized patients.