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(solved) Integument And Respiratory Infection Pathways

(solved) Integument And Respiratory Infection Pathways

Integument And Respiratory Infection Pathways


Several different viruses can lead to respiratory tract infections. Some of these viruses can efficiently spread among people through airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols, leading to challenging epidemics. Retrospective investigations into numerous epidemics have been conducted to determine the potential vectors of interhuman viral transmission. These research findings are frequently ambiguous, and there is also a dearth of data from controlled tests. As a result, there is currently a lack of basic information about the modes of transmission that could be exploited to enhance intervention efforts. Here, we summarize the data from experimental and observational studies conducted on the methods of human-to-human transmission of respiratory viruses, identify knowledge gaps, and discuss how the knowledge is currently applied in isolation recommendations in healthcare settings.


As observed in the COVID-19 pandemic, human respiratory virus infections cause various respiratory symptoms and illness severity, which contribute significantly to morbidity, mortality, and economic losses worldwide. Respiratory viruses come from different families and vary in their transmissibility and transmission mechanisms. For the same virus, there are different levels of transmissibility as measured by the primary reproduction number (R0) or secondary attack rate. Respiratory viruses can spread in four main ways: direct (physical) contact, indirect contact (fomite), big droplets, and small aerosols. We do not fully understand how the proportional contributions of each mode to a particular virus’s transmission in various contexts and how its variation impacts transmissibility and transmission dynamics. Discussion of the aerosol transmission relevance for severe acute respiratory syndrome and the particle size threshold between droplets and aerosols influenza virus and coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The usefulness of non-pharmaceutical measures in limiting virus transmission is supported by mechanistic evidence, but additional research is required. To determine the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical interventions in the population, it is essential to comprehend the relative contribution of various transmission channels. It should be more effective to interfere with several transmission modes than just one.

Integument And Respiratory Infection Pathways


Integument And Respiratory Infection Pathways

Module 05 Homework Assignment

· Use the information presented in the module folder along with your readings from the textbook to answer the following question

1. Describe how microbes of the normal flora in the human body can become opportunistic pathogens. Give one (1) example of a normal flora that can become opportunistic in the body:

2. Describe three (3) common bacterial skin infections. Be sure      to give the name of the specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and symptoms of each:

3. Describe three (3) common fungal infections (mycoses) of the skin. Be sure to give the name of the      specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and      symptoms of each:

4. Describe three (3) different types of respiratory infections caused by bacteria. Be sure to give the name of the specific organism that causes each and describe some common signs and symptoms of each:

5. Discuss the difference between emerging infectious diseases and reemerging infectious diseases. Give examples of each.

6. Briefly discuss and describe three (3) common viral respiratory infections. Be sure to give the name of the specific virus that causes each as well as some signs and symptoms for each:

7. Describe three (3) common fungal respiratory infections and      the name of the specific organism that causes them as well as some signs and symptoms for each:

NB: online textbook below should be used in APA format thanks

OpenStax, Microbiology. OpenStax. 01

ISBN-10 1-938168-14-3

ISBN-13 978-1-938168-14-7

Revision MB-2016-000(11/16)-B

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