Human Skeleton Anatomy
The human body can move in various ways, including crawling, jumping, climbing, walking, and running. The skeleton serves as the structure for all of these actions. At birth, a human might have as many as 300 bones. Age, however, causes the bones to fuse. The total number of bones falls to 206 by adulthood.
The heart, lungs, and liver are just a few of the critical organs that the skeleton also safeguards. The fibrous connective tissue known as ligaments holds bones to one another.
The locations where two or more bones touch are known as joints. They make it possible to perform various motions, including rotation, abduction, adduction, protraction, and retraction. Joints can be further divided into movable and immovable joints based on flexibility and movement. Immovable joints, also known as fixed joints, lack flexibility since the bones are united, whereas movable joints do.
Specialized tissues called muscles help bones move when moving. Tendons connect the muscles to the bones. The contraction and relaxation of the corresponding muscles present there cause the limbs to move. While joints aid in the flexibility of bones, only a muscle can bend or stretch a bone. In other words, the bone is pulled toward the direction of movement by the muscles linked to it.
Additionally, muscles that act in pairs are used for most movement. For instance, when we bend our arm, the nearby muscles contract, shorten, and stiffen, pulling the bones that way. The muscles in the opposite way must pull the bones in that direction to relax (stretch).
Human Body Parts List
The head, neck, and four limbs joined to the torso make up the human body.
The skeleton, made of cartilage and bone, gives the body its shape.
Internal organs of the human body, including the heart, lungs, and brain, are contained in various internal body cavities and are enclosed by the skeletal system.
Connecting the brain to the rest of the body is the spinal cord.
Human Body Composition
The human body has a variety of cavities that house the various organ systems.
The area inside the skull, known as the cranial cavity, protects the brain and other central nervous system organs.
The pleural cavity protects the lungs.
The intestines, liver, and spleen are all housed in the abdominal cavity.
Although humans and other animals have developed independently, we share a distant ancestor. Therefore, most of our bodily structure is comparable to other organisms, except for the proportions of our muscles and bones.
For instance, we could believe that giraffes have more neck vertebrae than humans have. No, giraffes have the same number of vertebrae despite their enormous height; they also have seven vertebrae on their neck.
One of our most distinguishing physical traits is our ability to utilize our hands, particularly for dexterous activities like writing, opening water bottles, doorknobs, etc.
This results from our ancestors starting to walk on our hind limbs instead of our four limbs. For a long time, the only means to learn about the human body’s anatomical structure was dissecting corpses (cadavers), which provided us with most of our knowledge. Although it was somewhat hideous, it comprised the majority of medical literature for decades. Today’s technological advancements allow us to examine human anatomy at a microscopic level.
Even now, researchers are finding new organs that were either ignored or misidentified as different tissues in the past. Under the epidermis, a brand-new organ called the Interstitium was identified by scientists in 2018.
It refers to how people physically, mechanically, and biochemically behave. Examining how the human body adjusts to physical activity, stress, and diseases, ties together health, medicine, and science.
A physiologist is a person who has received training in human physiology. Because of his outstanding studies, Claude Bernard is recognized as the father of physiology.
Body Parts and Their Functions in the Human
The list of bodily components varies because there is disagreement over what constitutes an organ. However, it is thought that 79 organs have been found thus far. We also have organs that, throughout our evolution, “lost” their purpose. Vestigial organs are those that still exist.
Some of these organs collaborate to develop specialized systems to carry out one or more particular duties. These are referred to as organ systems as a whole.
Five of the 79 organs are also necessary for survival; any harm to these five organs could cause the end of life. The brain, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys are the five most essential organs in the human body.
How do anatomical and physiological changes impact digestive pathology presentation? What is the link between digestion and psychology? In this discussion we will explore both concepts, as interest in both managing digestive disorders and psychological presentations represent growing fields.
Read the introduction, conclusion, and one section regarding a condition that piques your interest in Intestinal epithelial barrier and neuromuscular compartment in health and disease.
- Focus on the general concepts, as opposed to understanding every word. After completing the reading, answer the following question for your initial post: “How does digestive physiology lead to a specific pathological presentation?” You may choose which digestive pathology you’d like to focus on.
- Use the assigned article, with appropriate APA citations, to support your position with at least 5-6 sentences to support your case.
- Reply Post
In your reply post, share what factors you find most surprising, as well as any experiences and questions you have about digestive system physiology and pathology presentation. You may use the assigned article, or other credible references of your own selection to support your follow-up post(s).
D’Antongiovanni, V., Pellegrini, C., Fornai, M., Colucci, R., Blandizzi, C., Antonioli, L., & Bernardini, N. (2020). Intestinal epithelial barrier and neuromuscular compartment in health and disease. World journal of gastroenterology, 26(14), 1564–1579. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i14.1564