Your assignment is just a click away

We have the best writers

We guarantee you plagiarism free, well formatted, grad A+ papers!

(solved) Environmental Risk

(solved) Environmental Risk

Environmental Risk


Environmental risk assessments necessitate determining the risks for physiologically diverse individuals exposed to various air and water pollutants. A safe human dose/concentration (SHD/SHC) can be calculated in risk assessment evaluation to estimate the threshold dose/concentration. The SHD/SHC is referred to differently by different national and health agencies. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, refers to this safe dose as a reference dose (RfD) or reference concentration (RFC) in the form of a quantity in food or water, the amount of chemical in contact with the skin, or chemical concentration in air. The US Food and Drug Administration uses the term allowable daily intake. The term acceptable daily intake is used by the World Health Organization. Because a chemical can have multiple toxic effects, the first step in these assessments is determining the adverse impact at the lowest dose. The second step is to choose a threshold dose or the dose below which no adverse effects are expected. The threshold dose is the lowest observed negative effect level (LOAEL), the lowest amount tested that caused an adverse effect. However, the no practical adverse effect level (NOAEL) is the highest exposure level at which no statistically or biologically significant increases in the frequency or severity of adverse effects are observed between the exposed population and its appropriate control population and is desired for risk assessment purposes. A benchmark dose (BMD) or benchmark dose lower limit is an alternative to the NOAEL (BMDL). Deriving a BMDL, for example, according to the US EPA, entails selecting a predetermined change in the response rate of an adverse effect (called the benchmark response), typically in the range of 1-10%, depending on the power of a toxicity study). The BMDL is a statistically lower confidence limit on the dose that produces the selected response.


For many of the most toxic chemicals, such as pollutants in the air, food, or water, the US EPA has calculated toxicity factors or values (RFDS, RfCs, and cancer slope factors). The EPA’s online Integrated Risk Information System provides discounts for several of these chemicals. These profiles contain low-risk levels but are frequently based on critical studies or derived using various uncertainty factors (UFs).

RfD/RFC as BMD is a quantitative dose-response assessment of noncancer toxicity for ingested or inhaled chemicals. Noncancer toxicity refers to adverse health effects not caused by cancer or gene mutations. These effects include those on the tissue or organ where the chemical enters the body, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, or skin, as well as those that result from the toxicant’s absorption and distribution to a site distant from its entry point. Acute RfD or RFC estimates continuous ingestion or inhalation exposure for a short period (24 hours or less). In contrast, chronic RfD or RFC estimates daily ingestion or contact with a pollutant or continuous inhalation exposure for an extended period (up to a lifetime) to the human population (including sensitive subgroups). RfD or RFC is the ingestion dose (or amount in skin contact) or air exposure concentration above which chronic exposure may cause disease.

Environmental Risk


Environmental Risk

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Nursing Solved only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Nursing Solved are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Nursing Solved is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Nursing Solved we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.