Diabetes insipidus is a rare illness that causes frequent thirst and frequent urination.
Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes (commonly known as diabetes mellitus) are unrelated. However, diabetes insipidus exhibits some of the same signs and symptoms.
The following are the top 2 signs of diabetic insipidus:
severe thirst (polydipsia)
frequent urination, even at night (polyuria)
In the most severe cases, a person with diabetes insipidus may urinate up to 20 liters daily.
When to consult a doctor
If you always feel thirsty, you should always visit your doctor.
It must be looked at, even if it might not be diabetes insipidus.
Additionally, if you are:
Peeing more frequently than usual – most healthy adults need to urinate 4 to 7 times per day, passing little volumes of urine frequently – might occasionally occur together with the sensation that you need to urinate immediately.
Children’s smaller bladders make them more likely to urinate more frequently.
However, consult a doctor if your youngster urinates more than ten times per day.
Your doctor can perform several tests to help identify the problem’s root cause.
What causes insipid diabetes
Vasopressin (AVP), commonly known as an antidiuretic hormone, issues are what leads to diabetes insipidus (ADH).
The body’s fluid balance is significantly influenced by AVP.
It is created by specialized nerve cells in the brain region’s hypothalamus.
The pituitary gland receives AVP from the hypothalamus and stores it until needed.
When the body’s water level falls too low, the pituitary gland releases AVP.
Lowering the amount of water lost through the kidneys and causing the kidneys to generate more concentrated urine aids in the body’s ability to retain water.
Due to the kidneys’ inability to produce sufficiently concentrated urine in diabetes insipidus, an excessive amount of water is expelled from the body.
The kidneys may not respond to AVP. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a particular type of diabetes insipidus brought on by this.
The body tries to compensate for the increased water loss by increasing the amount of water consumed, which causes people to feel thirsty.
diabetes insipidus subtypes
The two primary kinds of diabetes insipidus are as follows:
Diabetic insipidus of the brain
Diabetic nephrogenic insipidus
Diabetes insipidus of the skull
Lack of AVP in the body causes cranial diabetes insipidus, which affects the regulation of urine production.
The most typical kind of diabetes insipidus is cranial diabetes insipidus.
Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland may be the reason, such as after an illness, surgery, brain tumor, or head accident.
There is no clear cause for the hypothalamus to stop producing adequate AVP in around 1 in 3 cases with cranial diabetes insipidus.
diabetic nephrogenic insipidus
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus develops when the body produces enough AVP, but the kidneys cannot process it.
It can be inherited as a disease on its own or, in rare situations, brought on by kidney impairment.
Some drugs, especially lithium, used to treat some patients with specific mental health issues, such as bipolar disorder, stabilize their mood, which can result in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
treating insipid diabetes
Those with milder forms of cerebral diabetes insipidus may not always require treatment.
You need to drink more water to compensate for the liquid lost through urination.
Desmopressin is a drug that can be used to mimic the effects of AVP if necessary.
Thiazide diuretics, which lessen the amount of urine the kidneys generate, are frequently used to treat nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.