Relating Critical Incident To Communication Theory And Knowledge Nursing Essay
Nursing is an action or duty to provide for others that is based on the science of caring. Many nursing leaders have developed ideas and concepts about the nursing profession over the years. There have been attempts to define the profession and pinpoint what motivates nurses to provide compassionate care to their patients. As a result, nursing theories have emerged to aid in the understanding of the art of caring. Nursing theories are groups of concepts and ideas that are used to describe, explain, predict, or prescribe nursing care (George, 2002, p. 5).
The goal of this paper is to compare and contrast Madeleine Leininger’s culture care diversity and intercultural nursing theory with Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad’s humanistic nursing theory. The key concepts of each theory will be identified, the similarities and differences of the theories will be presented, and these theories will be linked to other related theories.
Nursing is the act of caring for others, which requires the application of knowledge and the execution of actions in order to provide health services to others. “Nursing science represents clusters of precisely selected beliefs and values that are crafted into distinct theoretical structures,” writes Dr. Gail Mitchell (George, 2002). (p. 2). Nursing theories have existed for many years, dating back to Florence Nightingale’s ideas and continuing to the current ideas of nursing leaders today. In 1976, Madeleine Leininger developed her theory of cultural care diversity and universality. This theory was developed as a result of Leininger’s experiences working in a child guidance home in the 1950s. She realized that the children’s recurring behavioral patterns appeared to have a cultural basis. This inspired Leininger to learn new things about cultures and their core values, beliefs, and needs in order to provide culturally appropriate and competent care to all patients (Parker, 2006). This theory was dubbed the transcultural nursing theory. It addresses the cultural dynamics that have an effect on the nurse-patient relationship.
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The humanistic nursing theory, developed by Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad, was first published in 1976. Paterson and Zderad created the concepts associated with humanistic nursing theory in order to define the nursing profession. It was a way to show the values and meanings that are central to nursing experiences. When a person, a family, a community, or humanity requests assistance with a health-related issue, the nurse-patient relationship is formed (Parker, 2006). The act of nursing is the response of the two parties, nurse and patient.
Intercultural theory developed by Madeline Leininger
The culture care theory is well-established in the modern setting and is used by numerous nursing institutions worldwide. It is widely regarded as the most significant nursing breakthrough in the last century. The culture is well-known for its comprehensive, holistic, but culturally-specific focus on discovering resourceful healthcare for various world cultures. For the ever-expanding faculty of transcultural nursing, the theory provides a hypothetical study information. It provides new educational materials on how to care for immigrants from various underserved cultures.
The theory is one of the oldest in nursing, having been developed in the 1950s, and it has distinguishing characteristics that set it apart from other theories. It is the only nursing theory that is explicitly focused on cross-cultural relationships in health-related complications. It is also the sole theory attempting to dissect culture care. When compared to other nursing theories, it is very holistic and covers multi-dimensional aspects of culture-based healthcare. Its research methodologies span global cultures, examining the differences and similarities in health complications and associated care across cultures. It employs ethnonursing as a research method, which distinguishes it from humanistic nursing theory. It makes use of both theoretical and practical concepts (Parker, 2006).
The hypothetical tenets of this theory are drawn from Leininger’s broad and diverse nursing experiences, anthropological approaches, life experiences, human values, and inventive thoughts. The primary goal of this theory is to identify and explain various and global ethnically based care aspects that influence health, illness, and individual or mass deaths. The theory’s research findings are intended to provide solutions that are safe, resourceful, and, most importantly, congruent with specific cultural identities. The theory’s proposals explain the means for safe, resourceful, and congruent decisions and actions; a slight deviation from this means would imply illness or death of the patients.
The following are some examples of theories. First, patient care is the essence of nursing practice and a distinct, overarching, necessary, and unifying focus. Second, culturally tailored care is critical for health, development, and survival in the face of disability or death. Third, care based on culture is the most comprehensive, all-encompassing, and definitive method of understanding, elucidating, interpreting, and forecasting assistive congruent healthcare practices. Fourth, cultural care is essential in efforts to cure and heal, because there can be no healing without specific care. Finally, concepts, patterns, implications, expressions, and procedures differ across cultures, with both differences and similarities manifesting.
Essentially, the theory proposes using a culture’s traditional healing methods first, followed by global practices. In the case of a bee sting, for example, a mother of a Hispanic male used garlic to try to reduce swelling caused by the sting. The use of garlic to combat bee stings is one of that culture’s unique curing and healing methods (generic).
Theory of Humanistic Nursing
According to the humanistic nursing theory, professional nurses have a responsibility to approach nursing practice as an ongoing experience. Following an experience, nurses must reflect and draw their calls and responses from the lessons learned. The collection and subsequent synthesis of observed nursing phenomena over time will result in an explicit description of scientific tenets to be observed in nursing. Nursing, according to humanistic theory, is an experience accumulated over time among humans. Every nursing situation elicits reactions and influences the expression and materialization of humans’ ability to survive specific existing conditions (Parker, 2006). A nurse is responsible for managing these situations as well as the associated conditions of being or herself.
Humanistic nursing considers more than just the caring, technically competent nurse-patient relationship. Rather, it necessitates that nursing be regarded as a reliable insight, transactional association whose resourcefulness necessitates abstraction based on a professional nurse’s experiential consciousness of self and others. Existential experience presumes human awareness of self and others, as well as recognition of all individuals’ unique existence and uniqueness in situations. Only an individual understands his or her own situation and thus what is required in that situation. Humans’ uniqueness inspires both fear and hope. While each man is unique in his or her own way, he or she is similar to other human beings. Because everyone is unique, man is similar to everyone else.
Authenticity is required for existential consciousness. This authenticity goes beyond intellectual, academic, or scholarly awareness. “Auditory, olfactory, oral, visual, tactile, kinesthetic, and visceral responses” are among the issues at stake (Peterson & Zderad, 2008). Each of these can convey a distinct connotation to a person’s consciousness. When one is in touch with these issues, he or she can form opinions about the quality of life and the extent to which one is present with others. When people stop hiding more of themselves, they become more open to others. Self-awareness, being in touch with oneself, accepting oneself, and realizing one’s potential allow one to enter into a sharing relationship with others. A nurse confronts a man with his or her own lived existence as a result of an existential relationship. The interaction between a nurse and her patient will determine her actions because she relies on the patient’s insight for diagnosis. This theory heavily relies on phenomenological accounts of individual nursing cases from the nurse’s perspective, as well as the patient’s response and interaction. The theory’s main advantage is the integration of art and science in nursing. Caring is emphasized as an essential component of nursing.
Differentiation and Other Theories
The transcultural theory proposed by Leininger is a middle-range theory because it is adaptable in ambiguous situations. The humanistic theory is a grand theory because it is purely theoretical and does not take a holistic approach. When compared to middle-range theories, grand theories have less holistic approaches and are less practical. Factual findings from phenomenological and existential observations provide a strong foundation for transcultural nursing theory.
Kathryn Barnard’s Parent-Child Interaction Theory, which was introduced in 1979, is an example of a related nursing theory. It is based on the fact that the development of a healthy child after conception is heavily dependent on the parent or guardian of the infant. Such a parent has a responsibility to raise the child in a caring and loving manner (Wacharasin, Barnard & Spieker, 2003). Kathryn has developed, published, and implemented evidence-based child assessment protocols. According to the theory, maternal aspects, knowledge of growth and development, depression, and stress all have a significant impact on the quality of the infant-mother interaction.
These nursing theories were developed with the primary component of patient care in mind. All of the theories respect the patient’s quality of life and provide the best path for patient-nurse interactions.