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Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia

Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia

Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia

QUESTION
For this assignment, you will write a paper on the pharmacological management of the disease. The paper should include a review of the:

Select a disease process that is of interest to you.
Pathophysiology of the disease state.
Review of the pharmacological agents used for treatment and important information related to advanced practice nurse.
Each student will clearly write a title for this topic: For examples, “Pharmacological Effects of Anti-Hypertensive Medications in the Management of Hypertension”.
Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia

ANSWER
Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia
Fungal pneumonia is an uncommon and hazardous kind of infectious pneumonia produced by fungal spores in the air, soil, and, more commonly, the clinical environment. However, because its symptoms are primarily similar to those of the flu, it is easily identified. Inhalation of spores, inhalation of conidia, or reactivation of latent infection is how fungal infection affects the lungs. Pneumonia is the most prominent infectious cause of death in many nations, with more than 1.5 million people believed to have died. Furthermore, fungal pneumonia has been found to afflict persons with weakened immune systems, necessitating immediate medical intervention if any symptoms are present (Romani et al.,2021). The etiology and pharmacological effects of antibiotics like fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole, flucytosine, and ketoconazole are also discussed in this study. Notably, several types of fungal pneumonia are categorised into various types of fungus that causes the infection.
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Pneumocystis Pneumonia is a zoonotic species caused by the yeast-like Pneumocystis jirovecii fungus, which produces a severe dry cough, fever, and chest pains. It usually affects patients with weak immune systems, such as the elderly, cancer patients and HIV patients, and those who have undergone any surgical operations, for example, kidney transfer. In most cases, this infection is complicated to treat since it is prone to those weak immunities. Globally many death cases and infections have been recorded due to difficulties in curing the disease.
Valley fever
Valley fever, also known as coccidioidomycosis, is caused by exposure to Coccidioides fungi found in soil in the Southwest of the United States and Central and South America. People aged 60 and those who work in dusty conditions, such as farm workers and construction workers, are most commonly affected. Fever, cough, headache, rash, and muscle and joint discomfort are symptoms of this fungal infection, making diagnosis difficult. Victims of this infection have a better prognosis than those with other fungal pneumonia. Even though treatment can last up to six months, most people respond well and fully recover. However, long-term infections and nerve damage can persist, and untreated instances can be extremely deadly.
Aspergillosis
Aspergillus is the most prevalent fungi in many indoor and outdoor habitats; it is one of the most common airborne fungi. Aspergillosis infection is frequently acquired in the hospital by patients with severe immunodeficiency. With cryptococcus and a few others, this disease is linked to HIV/AIDS patients in late stages, leading to death. Additionally, this form of infection can cause “fungal balls” (aspergilloma), which grow along with an individual’s lungs. Similarly, this infection can spread rapidly to other parts of the body.
Causes
In many cases, the inhalation of fungi spores is the most popular way to spread fungal pneumonia. Similarly, stimulation of latent infection can also generate fungal pneumonia in the body. Generally, these fungi penetrate the alveoli through concentrating pores and migrate deeply into areas with gaps between the cells and neighbouring alveoli( Al-Snafi,2015). Due to this, the immune systems respond by sending white blood cells known as neutrophils to the lungs, which aids in curbing the combating pathogens. On the other hand, Neutrophils work by destroying offending processes and producing cytokines that help the immune system maintain and improve. There are various varieties of fungal pneumonia corresponding to various native regions. These include;
• Coccidioides
Valley fever and fungal infections are both caused by these microbes. Symptoms such as fever, cough, and weariness are frequently associated with this condition. Fungi spores are advantageously stirred up into the air when any disturbance is applied to the soils, such as farming or building.
• Histoplasma
These are fungi discovered from the droppings of some birds and bats commonly located in the central and eastern united states. Historically, these birds have been known to have originated from Central America and South America.
• Cryptococcus neoformans
Globally these fungi have been discovered to have originated from both the soil and birds’ droppings.
• Blastomyces
In most cases, these are fungi that leave in rotten wood, leaves, and damp soils in midwestern and southeastern states.
Additionally, there are opportunistic fungal infections apart from the listed above. for instance, there are those in indoor or outdoor environments. Generally, these infections rarely attack healthy individuals but are prone to infect those with compromised immunity undergoing other disorders.
Signs and symptoms
Because the symptoms of fungal pneumonia are so similar to those of viral or bacterial lung infections, appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be delayed. These signs and symptoms are listed as follows
• Fever
• Chills
• Coughing up much thick, colourful phlegm
• Breathing problems
• Coughing or breathing causes pain.
• Vomiting and nausea
• Diarrhea
The origin and severity of symptoms in patients with fungal pneumonia vary depending on their age; for example, the elderly and small children are more susceptible to this infection. People aged 65 and more and newborn children aged five and below will not be able to survive this pandemic. Even though the symptoms of fungal pneumonia in older people are usually mild, the illness can occasionally induce mental confusion, necessitating immediate medical attention. Feeding disorders, a pale complexion, breathing problems (grunts or rattles when breathing), a limp appearance, decreased urine production, and fussiness are all signs of illness in young children.

Pharmacological Effects of Antifungal Medications in Management of Fungal Pneumonia
Antifungal medicines are the most common treatment for fungus pneumonia. Different dosages and administration methods depend on individual cases and types of illness. The following medications are recommended for each illness accountable: Itraconazole is the most commonly prescribed treatment for blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and aspergillosis and belongs to the triazole class of antifungal medications (Grau et al.,2022). It is sold as an oral tablet or a liquid under the brand Sporalax13. Fluconazole, commonly marketed as Diflucan, is a triazole used to treat cryptococcal infection and valley fever (Buitrago et., al2021). Also, it is well known to prevent fungal pneumonia in HIV/AIDS and organ transplant patients. This medication can be given orally or intravenously.
Echinocandins: This group of drugs treats Aspergillus infections by acting directly on the fungi and preventing them from increasing. Caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin are indeed the three types that can be recommended. In the most severe instances, oxygen therapy and breathing exercises are recommended to release mucus and strengthen the lungs’ muscles. This treatment for fungal pneumonia can last up to a year in most cases. Fungal growths called mycetomas can arise in the lungs in advanced instances of cryptococcus, valley fever, and aspergillosis. They must be surgically removed only if earlier therapies have failed to produce results.
Another standard treatment is AmB, a macrocyclic polyene antifungal that Streptomyces derived. The cell membrane coordinates the antifungal activity of AmB.hence functions by administering Polyenes together with ergosterols on the fungal cell membrane, thus forming channels or pores through which potassium and other biological components are expelled, causing the fungal cell to die (Hussien et .al,2018). The adverse effects of AmB have been decreased as a result of chemical alterations in the parent medication and innovative delivery mechanisms. Currently, American guidelines have prescribed the use of C-AmB because of its first response among many patients. Moreover, if one of the patients is suffering from renal impairment, a lipid-based formulation is recommended, a potent antifungal agent.
Lastly, we have flucytosine which is well known as 5F-C. This mechanism is recommended to be a toxic antifungal drug. Patients suffering from solid tumours are advised to use flucytosine which is transported by inactive enzymes into fungal cells where cytosine is converted from 5F-C to 5F-U.
Conclusion
A contagious sickness, fungal pneumonia, is shared among the elderly, young children, and patients infected with various illnesses. However, antimicrobial and antibiotic pharmacological drugs can be used to treat the condition. Furthermore, Clinical practitioners must understand the underlying conditions and the type of pneumonia they are dealing with to improve the affected condition. Majorly prognosis cases and examinations should be diagnosed thoroughly and necessitated to improve results and lower the fatality rate of pneumonia. Similarly, creating public awareness on precautions such as improved hygiene should also be taken to prevent pathogenetic transmission of fungal pneumonia.

Pharmacological effects and management of fungal pneumonia

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