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Orem, Roy, Neuman, Newman, and Rogers’s theories have been reviewed in your readings. How could these theories be incorporated in your practice as a nurse leader?
Delve into each theory and consider what parts of the theories have been reflected in your own practice experience.
What practice situations lend themselves well to the use of theories?
What are the pros and cons of applying the theories in this week’s readings?
A nursing theory is a collection of knowledge that helps explain the nursing profession, what nurses do, and why they do it. Nursing theory defines nursing as a profession separate from other disciplines such as medicine. Nursing is a profession on its own, and nurses need to identify, understand, and develop theories according to the nursing profession. (Raj, 2011). In my practice experience, I have used Orem, Roy, Newman, Newman, and Roger’s Theory. Nursing leaders can use nursing theory to break down the whole nursing profession and explain what it entails to other nurses. The theories can be used by nursing leaders to educate nurses on the in nursing school on how to provide care in health care systems.
The Self-Care Deficit Theory, developed by Dorothy Orem, focuses on a person’s capability to do self- care. Self-care is performing activities on your behalf of maintaining health, life, and well-being. This theory is divided into self-care theory, self-care deficit theory, and the nursing system theories. Self-care deficit theory is when beneficial self-care demand is more than human’s capability to take care of themselves, creating a self-care deficit. Self-care agency is a human’s capability to participate in self-care (TK & Chandran, 2017). This theory’s conditions are age, gender, health state, patterns of living, and health care system factors. Orem’s theory is critical because it defines the role of patients or nurses in self-care demands. When providing care, both the nurse and patient have a role to play. Self-care theory has been applied in practice whereby a malnutrition patient can feed themselves. Patients in a health care system also perfome daily living activities. Orem’s self-care deficit is used to teach patients how to take care of themselves, such as the proper diet to take. The theory can be used by nursing leaders to educate junior nurses the process of patient self-care.
Roy’s adaptation theory, developed by Sister Callista Roy, presents a person as an adaptive system that is in constant with the internal and external environments. According to Roy’s theory, nursing’s goal is to ensure that the human system adapts to the environmental stimuli successfully. The environment is composed of all conditions that surround and affect an individual. A nurse should either adapt to a patient’s needs or change the environment to suit the patient’s needs. Roy’s theory increases life expectancy and compliance (George, 2011). Some patients require walking aids to prevent their falls. Nurses help support them or change the environments to suit their needs, such as incorporating supporting beams in health care facilities.
The Newman system theory was developed by Betty Newman to provide caregivers with a guideline on helping patients manage stressors. Newman’s model enables patients to heal spiritually, mentally, and physically. A nurse plays three roles in this model: first is primary prevention, whereby they are supposed to strengthen an individual’s defense line towards a stressor. The second role is secondary prevention after the system has reacted to an invading stressor, and finally, tertiary prevention after the body has become susceptible. Nurses should help maintain the equilibrium between a patient’s system and environmental stressors (George, 2011). Nurses plot a course of action that helps a client recover from stressors. Nurses help patients and their families adapt to the psychological issues brought about by life-threatening diseases.
Margaret Newman developed this theory. The theory views health as an ever-expanding consciousness, and everyone is part of it. The theory helps know the disease process, its prevention, and the recovery process. The theory enables one to find greater meaning in life and help them reach new heights in life (Masters, 2014). The theory was developed for those living with diseases such as HIV aids. For them, reaching health as the absence of disease is impossible. Psychosocial nursing care of patients living with HIV should use consciousness as a guide in the care process.
In Roger’s theory, nursing is defined as both art and science. It is commonly referred to as the Science of Unitary Human Beings (SUHB). According to this theory, nursing’s goal is to advocate for the betterment of all human beings on the planet . (Raj, 2011). According to this theory, the science of nursing has the knowledge in nursing that is obtained from the research, and the art of nursing is applying the knowledge of nursing to better a patient’s life. In nursing, nurses can use scientific tools and equipment tailored for a patient’s condition to provide care for them.
Nursing theories act as a guideline on what the nursing profession is. The theories help guide nurses in their line of work to better a patient’s health. Nursing theories enable nurses to provide holistic care to patients. The main disadvantage of nursing theories is that some of these theories are not applicable in clinical settings, and they tend to make many assumptions.
George, J. B. (2011). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice. Pearson.
Masters, K. (2014). Nursing theories: A framework for professional practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Raj, D. E. (2011). undefined. Nursing Theories, 17-24. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/11394_2
TK, A., & Chandran, S. (2017). Introduction to nursing theories. Application of Nursing Theories, 1-1. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp/books/13072_1