Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the online Library and explain how each research type differs from the others. Evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.
There are various types of research. This paper discusses the experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental aspects of research in clinical practice.
Experimental research is a scientific study that contains a hypothesis, variables that can be modified, and a controlled setting. The data collected by the research is objective in supporting or invalidating a theoretical framework through seeking a relationship between the dependent variable and independent variable. The statistical representation of experimental research is usually quantified by using measures. An example of experimental research in clinical practice is Aspirin, clopidogrel, and prasugrel monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by Parker et al. (2020). The research is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of thrombotic markers and microRNA levels. The data was analysed using SAS statistical software (SPSS) and RStudio software. No correction for multiple comparisons was undertaken because the analyses were exploratory and designed to generate hypotheses. ANOVA with Greenhouse–Geisser correction and Bonferroni correlations compared the three treatments and the subjective health outcomes. Platelet aggregation was measured using light transmittance, ADP, collagen, AA responses, platelet P-selectin expression was measured using flow cytometry, and fibrin clot dynamics were studied.
Quasi-Experimental research is a statistical analysis that involves non-randomized intervention studies within a population of subjects. The research design assigns the subjects o groups and does not have control over the subjective outcomes of the research. Instead, it assesses pre-existing data to compare or extract the predictor variables. An example of quasi-experimental research in clinical practice is the effects of home-based exercise interventions on elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis (Chen et al., 2019). The study design for the research was a two-arm, superiority, quasi-experimental trial in Beijing that was assessor-blinded. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviations (SDs) or medians and interquartile range (IQR) were utilized to summarize the study data. The sampling, although randomized, assesses the effects of the intervention practice on the target population as the main variables forming a causal relationship between the intervention and health outcomes for the elderly.
Non- Experimental Research can be either qualitative or quantitative; however, it lacks the independent variable. The research involves observing the context in which events or measurable phenomena occur and assessing it to obtain information. Therefore, the study relies on interpretive analysis as researchers do not control the subjects. An example of a non-experimental analysis is evaluating the effect of periodontal disease on diabetes (Bugrake et al., 2013). The study design for the research is a systematic review of epidemiologic observational evidence. The research is nonexperimental as it is objective in observing and interpreting epidemiologic data on the impact of periodontal disease on diabetes management, complications, and occurrence. Each study was evaluated by four reviewers who used the PRISMA Statement for reporting and the Newcastle-Ottawa System for quality evaluation.