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Neurodevelopmental disorders[1][2] are problems with the brain’s and central nervous system’s growth and development. A more specific definition of the term is a disorder of brain function that affects emotion, learning ability, self-control, and memory and manifests as an individual develops and grows. [3]
The following neurodevelopmental disorders are listed in the DSM-5:[2]

ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
DLD stands for developmental language disorder (formerly known as SLI- Specific Language Impairment)
Communication, speech, or language disorders, expressive language disorder, fluency disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder, and speech sound disorder are all examples of communication, speech, or language disorders.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects (ASD)
Intellectual disabilities (IDs) and intellectual development disorder (IDD, previously known as mental retardation) (GDD)
Motor disorders, such as developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders (such as Tourette’s syndrome), as well as CAS – Apraxia of speech, are examples of CAS.
Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, and other neurogenetic disorders Hypogonadotropic hypogonadal syndromes, Rett syndrome [5]
Specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia or dyscalculia.
Traumatic brain injury (including congenital injuries that cause cerebral palsy[6]) and disorders caused by neurotoxicants, including Minamata disease caused by mercury, behavioral disorders such as conduct disorder caused by other heavy metals such as lead, chromium, platinum, etc., hydrocarbons such as dioxin, PBDEs, and PCBs, medications and illegal drugs such as cocaine, radioactive metals such as Po210 (found in cigarettes), and others.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) can manifest a combination of the above, most commonly ADHD[7]. As a result, FASD is frequently misdiagnosed, although it is estimated that one in every twenty people is affected.
Currently being investigated
Neurodevelopmental research projects are looking into potential new disorder classifications, such as:

Nonverbal learning disorder (NVLD), a neurodevelopmental disorder thought to be linked to white matter in the right hemisphere of the brain, is characterized by:
Low visuospatial intelligence.
The disparity between verbal and visuospatial intelligence.
Visuoconstructive and fine-motor coordination skills.
Visuospatial memory tasks.
Reading is better than mathematical achievement.
Socioemotional skills.



[11] While nonverbal learning disorder is not classified as a distinct disorder in the ICD or DSM, “the majority of researchers and clinicians agree that the profile of NLD clearly exists (but see Spreen, 2011, for an exception[12]), but they disagree on the need for a specific clinical category and the criteria for its identification.” [13]
Presentation \sConsequences
A wide range of associated symptoms and severity characterize neurodevelopmental disorders, resulting in varying mental, emotional, physical, and economic consequences for individuals, families, social groups, and society.

The development of the nervous system is tightly regulated and timed; it is influenced by genetic programs and the environment. Any significant deviation from the typical developmental trajectory early in life can result in missing or abnormal neuronal architecture or connectivity. [15] Because of the temporal and spatial complexity of the developmental trajectory, there are many potential causes of neurodevelopmental disorders that may affect different areas of the nervous system at different times and ages. These include social deprivation, genetic and metabolic diseases, immune disorders, infectious diseases, nutritional factors, physical trauma, and toxic and environmental factors. Some neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders, are considered multifactorial syndromes, with many causes that converge to a more specific neurodevelopmental manifestation. [16]

Deprivation on the social level
Social and emotional neglect causes significant delays in the brain and cognitive development.
[17] Studies on children growing up in Romanian orphanages during Nicolae Ceauşescu’s regime show that social deprivation and language deprivation profoundly affect the developing brain. These effects change over time. The longer children were left in negligent institutional care, the worse the consequences became. Adoption at a young age, on the other hand, mitigated some of the effects of earlier institutionalization (abnormal psychology). [18]

Genetic diseases
The main article is about a genetic disorder.

A Down syndrome child
Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, is a well-known example of a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder. This disorder is usually caused by an extra chromosome 21 [19], but it can also be caused by other chromosomal abnormalities, such as genetic material translocation. Short stature, epicanthal (eyelid) folds, abnormal fingerprints and palm prints, heart defects, poor muscle tone (delay of neurological development), and intellectual disabilities are all symptoms (delay of intellectual development). [4]

Fragile X syndrome is a less well-known genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder. Martin and Bell discovered Fragile X syndrome while researching people with a family history of sex-linked “mental defects” in 1943. [20] Another X-linked disorder that causes severe functional limitations is Rett syndrome. [21] Small deletions of genetic material from chromosome 7 cause Williams syndrome. [22] 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (formerly DiGeorge or velocardiofacial syndrome) is the most common recurrent Copy Number Variant disorder, followed by Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome. [23]

Immune system dysfunction
The immune-mediated disease is the main article.
Immune responses during pregnancy, both maternal and developmental, may result in neurodevelopmental disorders. PANDAS, or Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection, is a common immune reaction in infants and children. [25] Sydenham’s chorea is another disorder that causes more abnormal body movements but fewer psychological consequences. Both are immune responses to Streptococcus bacteria infection of brain tissue. Susceptibility to these immune diseases may be genetically determined[26], so several family members may have one or both after a Strep infection epidemic. [Citation required]

Infectious illnesses
When systemic infections occur in humans during infancy and childhood, they can have neurodevelopmental consequences, but they are not considered a primary neurodevelopmental disorder—for instance, HIV[27]. Head and brain infections, such as brain abscesses, meningitis, or encephalitis, have a high risk of causing neurodevelopmental problems and, eventually, a disorder. Measles, for example, can lead to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

A variety of infectious diseases can be transmitted congenitally (before or during birth) and cause severe neurodevelopmental problems, such as the viruses HSV, CMV, rubella (congenital rubella syndrome), Zika virus, or bacteria such as Treponema pallidum in congenital syphilis, which can progress to neurosyphilis if left untreated. Protozoa such as Plasmodium[27] or Toxoplasma can cause congenital toxoplasmosis, characterized by multiple cysts in the brain and other organs and resulting in various neurological deficits.

Congenital infections may cause some cases of schizophrenia, but unknown factors cause the vast majority.


Metabolic issues
Metabolic disorders in either the mother or the child can cause neurodevelopmental disorders. Diabetes mellitus (a multifactorial disorder) and phenylketonuria are two examples (an inborn error of metabolism). Many of these inherited diseases can directly affect the child’s metabolism and neural development [29], but they can also indirectly affect the child during pregnancy. (Also see teratology).

Type 1 diabetes can cause neurodevelopmental damage in children due to the effects of excess or insufficient glucose. If diabetes is not well controlled, the problems persist and may worsen throughout childhood. [30] Impaired cognitive functioning may precede the onset of type 2 diabetes. [31]
If the mother has undiagnosed gestational diabetes, a non-diabetic fetus can also be exposed to glucose effects. Maternal diabetes causes a large birth weight, making it difficult for the infant to pass through the birth canal without injury, or it can cause early neurodevelopmental deficits. Neurodevelopmental symptoms usually subside in later childhood. [32]

PKU, or phenylketonuria, can cause neurodevelopmental problems, and children with PKU must follow a strict diet to avoid intellectual disability and other disorders. Excess maternal phenylalanine can be absorbed by the fetus in the maternal form of PKU, even if the fetus has not inherited the disease. This can result in intellectual disability and other problems. [33][34]

Nutritional disorders and deficiencies can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida and anencephaly, both of which are neural tube defects characterized by malformation and dysfunction of the nervous system and its supporting structures, resulting in severe physical disability and emotional consequences. Folic acid deficiency in the mother is the most common nutritional cause of neural tube defects; folic acid is a B vitamin found in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and milk products. [35] [36] (Because medications and other environmental factors can interfere with folate metabolism, neural tube defects are thought to have multifactorial causes.) [37] [38] Iodine deficiency, on the other hand, causes a range of neurodevelopmental disorders ranging from mild emotional disturbance to severe intellectual disability. (Also known as congenital iodine deficiency syndrome). [39]

Excessive amounts of foods or supplements in maternal and infant diets may also cause problems. For example, in 1973, K.L. Jones and D.W. Smith of the University of Washington Medical School in Seattle discovered a pattern of “craniofacial, limb, and cardiovascular defects associated with prenatal onset growth deficiency and developmental delay” in children of alcoholic mothers, which is now known as fetal alcohol syndrome. [40]

Physical harm
Traumatic brain injury is the main topic of this article.

A CT scan of the brain reveals an epidural hematoma, a type of traumatic brain injury (upper left)
Brain trauma in the developing human is a common cause of neurodevelopmental syndromes (over 400,000 injuries per year in the US alone, with no precise data on how many results in developmental sequellae)[41]. It is divided into two major categories: congenital injury (including injury caused by otherwise uncomplicated premature birth)[6] and injury occurring during childhood or infancy. Asphyxia (tracheal obstruction), hypoxia (lack of oxygen to the brain), and mechanical trauma during birth are all common causes of congenital injury. [42]

Although the relationship between the placenta and the brain is not yet clear, many studies link the placenta to fetal brain development.
Abnormal brain development or damage at an early age can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. Within this group of disorders, some are resolvable with appropriate and timely interventions, either pharmacological or nonpharmacological, while other disorders are chronic and need to be managed throughout the lifespan.

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