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Mental Health

Mental Health

Mental health encompasses emotional, psychological, and social well-being, influencing cognition, perception, and behavior. It likewise determines how an individual handles stress, interpersonal relationships, and decision-making. [1] Mental health includes subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of one’s intellectual and emotional potential. [2] From the perspectives of positive psychology or holism, mental health may include an individual’s ability to enjoy life and to create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. [3] Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories affect how one defines “mental health.” [4] Some early signs related to mental health problems are sleep irritation, lack of energy, lack of appetite, and thinking of harming yourself or others. [
Mental disorders
See also: Mental disorder.

Mental health, as defined by the Public Health Agency of Canada [6], is an individual’s capacity to feel, think, and act to achieve a better quality of life while respecting personal, social, and cultural boundaries.

Impairment of any of these is a risk factor for mental disorders or mental illnesses,[8] which are a component of mental health.

Mental disorders are health conditions that affect and alter cognitive functioning, emotional responses, and behavior associated with distress and impaired functioning. [9] [10] The ICD-11 is the global standard used to diagnose, treat, research, and report various mental disorders. [11] [12] The DSM-5 is the classification system of mental disorders in the United States. [13]

Mental health is associated with several lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, stress, drug abuse, social connections, and interactions.


[14] Therapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurse practitioners, or family physicians can help manage mental illness through therapy, counseling, or medication. [15]

See also: Wellbeing, Eudaimonia, and History of mental disorders
Early history
In the mid-19th century, William Sweetser was the first to coin the term mental hygiene, which is the precursor to contemporary approaches to promoting positive mental health.
Isaac Ray, the fourth president[18] of the American Psychiatric Association and one of its founders, further defined mental hygiene as “the art of preserving the mind against all incidents and influences calculated to deteriorate its qualities, impair its energies, or derange its movements.” [17]

In American history, mentally ill patients were thought to be religiously punished. This response persisted through the 1700s, along with the inhumane confinement and stigmatization of such individuals. [19] Dorothea Dix (1802–1887) was essential in developing the “mental hygiene” movement. Dix was a school teacher who endeavored to help people with mental disorders and to expose the sub-standard conditions into which they were put. [20] This became known as the “mental hygiene movement.” [20] Before this movement, it was not uncommon for people affected by mental illness to be neglected, often left alone in deplorable conditions without sufficient clothing. [20] From 1840 to 1880, she won the support of the federal government to set up over 30 state psychiatric hospitals; however, they were understaffed, under-resourced, and were accused of violating human rights. [19]

Emil Kraepelin, in 1896 developed the taxonomy of mental disorders, which has dominated the field for nearly 80 years. Later, the proposed disease model of abnormality was subjected to analysis and considered normality to be relative to the defining group’s physical, geographical, and cultural aspects. [21]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Clifford Beers founded “Mental Health America – National Committee for Mental Hygiene,” after the publication of his accounts as a patient in several lunatic asylums, A Mind That Found Itself, in 1908and opened the first outpatient mental health clinic in the United States.

Mental Health

The mental hygiene movement, similar to the social hygiene movement, had at times been associated with advocating eugenics and sterilization of those considered too mentally deficient to be assisted into productive work and contented family life.

[26] In the post-WWII years, references to mental hygiene were gradually replaced by the term’ mental health’ due to its positive aspect that evolved from illness treatment to preventive and promotive areas of healthcare. [24]

Deinstitutionalization and transinstitutionalization
When U.S. government-run hospitals were accused of violating human rights, advocates pushed for deinstitutionalization: replacing federal mental hospitals with community mental health services. The Community Mental Health Centers Act enforced the closure of state-provisioned psychiatric hospitals in 1963, which laid out terms in which only patients who posed an imminent danger to others or themselves could be admitted into state facilities. [27] This was seen as an improvement from previous conditions. However, there remains a debate on the need for these community resources.

It has been proven that this transition benefited many patients: an increase in overall satisfaction, a better quality of life, more friendships between patients, and not too costly. This proved to be valid only in the circumstance that treatment facilities had enough funding for staff and equipment and proper management. [28] However, this idea is a polarizing issue. Critics of deinstitutionalization argue that poor living conditions prevailed, patients were lonely, and they did not acquire proper medical care in these treatment homes. [29] Additionally, patients who moved from state psychiatric care to nursing and residential homes had deficits in their treatment. Some cases result in the shift of care from health workers to patients’ families, where they do not have the proper funding or medical expertise to give appropriate care. [29] On the other hand, patients treated in community mental health centers lack sufficient cancer testing, vaccinations, or regular medical check-ups. [29]

Other critics of state deinstitutionalization argue that this was simply a transition to “transinstitutionalization,” or the idea that prisons and state-provisioned hospitals are interdependent. In other words, patients become inmates. This draws on the Penrose Hypothesis of 1939, which theorized that there was an inverse relationship between prisons’ population size and the number of psychiatric hospital beds. [30] This means that populations that require psychiatric mental care will transition between institutions, which in this case, includes state psychiatric hospitals and criminal justice systems. Thus, a decrease in available psychiatric hospital beds co-occurred with an increased number of inmates. [30] Although some are skeptical that this is due to other external factors, others will reason this conclusion to a lack of empathy for the mentally ill. There is no argument for the social stigmatization of those with mental illnesses; they have been widely marginalized and discriminated against. [19] In this source, researchers analyze how most compensation prisoners (detainees who are unable or unwilling to pay a fine for petty crimes) are unemployed, homeless, and with an extraordinarily high degree of mental illnesses and substance use disorders. [30] Compensation prisoners then lose future job opportunities, face social marginalization, and lack access to resocialization programs, ultimately facilitating reoffending. [30] The research sheds light on how the mentally ill—and in this case, the poor—are further punished for certain circumstances that are beyond their control and that this is a vicious cycle that repeats itself. Thus, prisons embody another state-provisioned mental hospital.

Families of patients, advocates, and mental health professionals still call for an increase in more well-structured community facilities and treatment programs with a higher quality of long-term inpatient resources and care. With this more structured environment, the United States will continue with more access to mental health care and an increase in the overall treatment of the mentally ill.

However, there is still a lack of studies on mental health conditions (MHCs) to raise awareness, knowledge development, and attitude toward seeking medical treatment for MHCs in Bangladesh. People in rural areas often seek treatment from traditional healers, and MHCs are sometimes considered a spiritual matter. [31]

See also: Prevalence of mental disorders.
Mental illnesses are more common than cancer, diabetes, or heart disease. Over 26 percent of all Americans over 18 meet the criteria for having a mental illness. [32] Evidence suggests that 450 million people worldwide have some mental illness. Major depression ranks fourth among the top 10 leading causes of disease worldwide. By 2029, mental illness is predicted to become the leading cause of disease worldwide. One million people commit suicide yearly, and 10 to 20 million attempts it. [33] A World Health Organization (WHO) report estimates the global cost of mental illness at nearly $2.5 trillion (two-thirds in indirect costs) in 2010, with a projected increase to over $6 trillion by 2030. [34]

Evidence from the WHO suggests that nearly half of the world’s population is affected by mental illness, impacting their self-esteem, relationships, and ability to function in everyday life.

[35] An individual’s emotional health can impact their physical health. Poor mental health can lead to problems such as the inability to make good decisions and substance use disorders. [36]

Good mental health can improve life quality, whereas poor mental health can worsen it. According to Richards, Campania, & Muse-Burke, “There is growing evidence showing that emotional abilities are associated with pro-social behaviors such as stress management and physical health.” [36] Their research also concluded that people who lack emotional expression are inclined to anti-social behaviors (e.g., substance use disorder and alcohol use disorder, physical fights, vandalism), which reflects one’s mental health and suppressed emotions. [36] Adults and children who face mental illness may experience social stigma, which can exacerbate the issues. [37]

Global prevalence
See also: Global mental health and Category: Mental health by country.

The Two Continua Model of Mental Health and Mental Illness
Mental health can be seen as a continuum, where an individual’s health may have many different possible values.
[38] Mental wellness is viewed as a positive attribute; this definition highlights emotional well-being, the capacity to live a whole and creative life, and the flexibility to deal with life’s inevitable challenges. Some discussions are formulated in terms of contentment or happiness. [39] Many therapeutic systems and self-help books offer methods and philosophies espousing strategies and techniques vaunted as effective for further improving mental wellness. Positive psychology is increasingly prominent in mental health.

A holistic model of mental health generally includes concepts based on anthropological, educational, psychological, religious, and sociological perspectives. There are also models as theoretical perspectives from personality, social, clinical, health, and developmental psychology. [40][41]

The tripartite model of mental wellbeing

[38][42] views mental well-being as encompassing three components: emotional well-being, social well-being, and psychological well-being. Emotional well-being is defined as having high levels of positive emotions. In contrast, social and psychological well-being is defined as the presence of psychological and social skills and abilities that contribute to optimal functioning in daily life. The model has received empirical support across cultures. [42] [43] [44] The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) is the most widely used scale to measure the tripartite model of mental well-being. [45] [46] [47]

Children and young adults
Further information: Infant mental health and Mental disorders diagnosed in childhood
See also: Depression in childhood and adolescence.
Mental health conditions are 16% of the global burden of disease and injury in people aged 10–19 years.
[48] 42% of those young adults went untreated as of 2018.
[1] Half of all mental health conditions start by 14 years of age, but most cases go undetected and untreated. [49] [48] The role of caregivers for youth with mental health needs is valuable, and caregivers benefit most when they have sufficient psychoeducation and peer support. [50] Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents. [48] Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in 15-19-year-olds. [48] Exposure to childhood trauma can cause mental health disorders and poor academic achievement. [51] Ignoring mental health conditions in adolescents can impact adulthood. [52] 50% of preschool children show a natural reduction in behavioral problems. The remaining experience long-term consequences. [52] It impairs physical and mental health and limits opportunities to live fulfilling lives. [52] A result of depression during adolescence and adulthood may be substance abuse. [52] [53] The average age of onset is between 11 and 14 years for depressive disorders. [53] Only approximately 25% of children with behavioral problems refer to medical services. [52] The majority of children go to die. [52]

Homeless population
Further information: Homelessness and mental health
Mental illness is thought to be highly prevalent among homeless populations, though access to proper diagnoses is limited. An article by Lisa Goodman and her colleagues summarized Smith’s research into PTSD in homeless single women and mothers in St. Louis, Missouri, which found that 53% of the respondents met diagnostic criteria and described homelessness as a risk factor for mental illness. [54] At least two commonly reported symptoms of psychological trauma, social disaffiliation and learned helplessness, are highly prevalent among homeless individuals and families. [55]

While mental illness is prevalent, people infrequently receive appropriate care.

[54] Case management linked to other services is a practical care approach for improving symptoms in people experiencing homelessness.

[55] Case management reduced hospital admission, reducing substance use by those with substance abuse problems more than routine care. [55]

Immigrants and refugees
See also: Mental health of refugees.
States that produce refugees are sites of social upheaval, civil war, and even genocide.
[56] Most refugees experience trauma. It can be in the form of torture, sexual assault, family fragmentation, and the death of loved ones. [56] [57]

Refugees and immigrants experience psychosocial stressors after resettlement.

[58] These include discrimination, lack of economic stability, and social isolation, causing emotional distress.


[57] For refugees, family reunification can be one of the primary needs to improve their quality of life. [56] Post-migration trauma is a cause of depressive disorders and psychological distress for immigrants. [56] [57] [58]

Cultural and religious considerations
Mental health is a socially constructed concept; different societies, groups, cultures, institutions, and professions have very different ways of conceptualizing its nature and causes, determining what is mentally healthy, and deciding what interventions, if any, are appropriate.
[59] Thus, different professionals will have different cultural, class, political, and religious backgrounds, impacting the methodology applied during treatment. In the context of deaf mental health care, professionals must have the cultural competency of deaf and hard-of-hearing people and understand how to properly rely on trained, qualified, and certified interpreters when working with culturally Deaf clients.

Research has shown that there is a stigma attached to mental illness.

[60] Due to such stigma, individuals may resist labeling and be driven to respond to mental health diagnoses with denialism. [61] Family caregivers of individuals with mental disorders may also suffer discrimination or face stigma. [62]

Addressing and eliminating the social stigma and perceived stigma attached to mental illness has been recognized as crucial to education and awareness surrounding mental health issues. In the United Kingdom, the Royal College of Psychiatrists organized the campaign Changing Minds (1998–2003) to help reduce stigma,[63] while in the United States, efforts by entities such as the Born This Way Foundation and The Manic Monologues, specifically focus on removing the stigma surrounding mental illness. [64] [65] The National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) is a U.S. institution founded in 1979 to represent and advocate for those struggling with mental health issues. NAMI helps to educate about mental illnesses and health issues while also working to eliminate the stigma[66] attached to these disorders.

Many mental health professionals are beginning to, or already understand, the importance of competency in religious diversity and spirituality. They are also partaking in cultural training to understand better which interventions work best for these different groups. The American Psychological Association explicitly states that religion must be respected. Education in spiritual and religious matters is also required by the American Psychiatric Association [67]; however, far less attention is paid to the damage that more rigid, fundamentalist faiths commonly practiced in the United States can cause. [68] [unreliable source?] This theme was widely politicized in 2018, such as with the creation of the Religious Liberty Task Force in July of that year. [69] Also, many providers and practitioners in the United States are only beginning to realize that mental healthcare institution lacks the knowledge and competence of many non-Western cultures, leaving providers in the United States ill-equipped to treat patients from different cultures. [70]

See also: Mental health in aviation
Occupational therapy
Occupational therapy practitioners aim to improve and enable a client or group’s participation in meaningful, everyday occupations.
[71] In this sense, occupation is any activity that “occupies one’s time.” Examples of those activities include daily tasks (dressing, bathing, eating, house chores, driving, etc.), sleep and rest, education, work, play, leisure (hobbies), and social interactions. The O.T. profession offers a vast range of services for all stages of life in many practice settings, though the foundations of O.T. come from mental health.

O.T. services focused on mental health can be provided to persons, groups, and populations [72] across the lifespan and experiencing varying levels of mental health performance. For example, occupational therapy practitioners provide mental health services in school systems, military environments, hospitals, outpatient clinics, and inpatient mental health rehabilitation settings. Interventions or support can be delivered directly through specific treatment interventions or indirectly by consulting businesses, schools, or other more prominent groups to incorporate mental health strategies on a programmatic level. Mentally healthy people can benefit from health promotion and additional prevention strategies to reduce the impact of difficult situations.

The interventions focus on positive functioning, sensory strategies, managing emotions, interpersonal relationships, sleep, community engagement, and other cognitive skills (i.e., visual-perceptual skills, attention, memory, arousal/energy management, etc.).

Mental health in social work
Further information: Social work
See also: Clinical social work
Social work in mental health, also called psychiatric social work, is a process where an individual is helped to attain freedom from overlapping internal and external problems (social and economic situations, family and other relationships, the physical and organizational environment, psychiatric symptoms, etc.). It aims for harmony, quality of life, self-actualization, and personal adaptation across all systems. Psychiatric social workers are mental health professionals who can assist patients and their family members in coping with mental health issues and various economic or social problems caused by mental illness or psychiatric dysfunctions and attain improved mental health and well-being. They are vital members of the treatment teams in the Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in hospitals. They are employed in both outpatient and inpatient settings of a hospital, nursing homes, state and local governments, substance use clinics, correctional facilities, health care services, private practice, etc. [73]

In the United States, social workers provide most mental health services. According to government sources, 60 percent of mental health professionals are clinically trained social workers, 10 percent are psychiatrists, 23 percent are psychologists, and 5 percent are psychiatric nurses. [74]

Mental health social workers in Japan have professional knowledge of health and welfare and skills essential for a person’s well-being. Their social work training enables them as a professional to carry out Consultation assistance for mental disabilities and their social reintegration; Consultation regarding the rehabilitation of the victims; Advice and guidance for post-discharge residence and re-employment after hospitalized care, for significant life events in regular life, money and self-management and other relevant matters to equip them to adapt in daily life. Social workers provide individual home visits for the mentally ill and make welfare services available; with specialized training, a range of procedural services are coordinated for home, workplace, and school. In an administrative relationship, Psychiatric social workers provide consultation, leadership, conflict management, and work direction. Psychiatric social workers who offer assessment and psychosocial interventions function as a clinician, counselors, and municipal staff of the health centers. [75]

Risk factors and causes of mental health problems
Many things can contribute to mental health problems, including biological factors, genetic factors, life experiences (such as psychological trauma or abuse), and a family history of mental health problems.

Biological factors
According to the National Institute of Health Curriculum Supplement Series book, most scientists believe neurotransmitter changes can cause mental illnesses. In the section “The Biology of Mental Illnesses,” the issue is explained in detail, “…there may be disruptions in the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate, and norepinephrine in individuals with schizophrenia”. [77]

Economic factors
See also: Socioeconomic status and mental health.
Unemployment has been shown to hurt an individual’s emotional well-being, self-esteem, and, more broadly, mental health. Increasing unemployment has been shown to impact mental health, predominantly depressive disorders, significantly. [78] This is an important consideration when reviewing the triggers for mental health disorders in any population survey. [79]

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries.
Emotional and mental disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide. Investigating the degree and severity of untreated emotional and mental disorders throughout the world is a top priority of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative,[80] which was created in 1998 by the World Health Organization (WHO). [81] “Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading causes of disability worldwide, accounting for 37% of all healthy life years lost through disease. These disorders are most destructive to low and middle-income countries due to their inability to provide their citizens with the appropriate aid. Despite modern treatment and rehabilitation for emotional and mental health disorders, “even economically advantaged societies have competing priorities and budgetary constraints.”

The World Mental Health survey initiative has suggested a plan for countries to redesign their mental health care systems to allocate resources best. “A first step is documentation of services being used and the extent and nature of unmet treatment needs. A second step could be to make a cross-national comparison of service use and unmet needs in countries with different mental health care systems. Such comparisons can help to uncover optimum financing, national policies, and delivery systems for mental health care.” [This quote needs a citation]

Knowledge of providing effective emotional and mental health care has become imperative worldwide. Unfortunately, most countries need more data to guide decisions, absent or competing visions for resources, and near-constant pressures to cut insurance and entitlements. WMH surveys were done in Africa (Nigeria, South Africa), the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Asia and the Pacific (Japan, New Zealand, Beijing, and Shanghai in the People’s Republic of China), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), and the Middle East (Israel, Lebanon). Countries were classified with World Bank criteria as low-income (Nigeria), lower-middle-income (China, Colombia, South Africa, Ukraine), higher-middle-income (Lebanon, Mexico), and high-income.

The coordinated surveys on emotional and mental health disorders, their severity, and treatments were implemented in the countries above. These surveys assessed the frequency, types, and adequacy of mental health service use in 17 countries where WMH surveys are complete. The WMH also examined unmet needs for treatment in strata defined by the seriousness of mental disorders. Their research showed that “the number of respondents using any 12-month mental health service was generally lower in developing than in developed countries, and the proportion receiving services tended to correspond to countries’ percentages of gross domestic product spent on health care”. “High levels of unmet need worldwide are not surprising, since WHO Project ATLAS’ findings of much lower mental health expenditures than was suggested by the magnitude of burdens from mental illnesses. Generally, unmet needs in low-income and middle-income countries might be attributable to these nations spending reduced amounts (usually <1%) of already diminished health budgets on mental health care, and they rely heavily on out-of-pocket spending by citizens who are ill-equipped for it". Stress Dementia Friends training The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health discusses how a certain amount of stress is a normal part of daily life. Small doses of stress help people meet deadlines, be prepared for presentations, be productive and arrive on time for important events. However, long-term stress can become harmful. When stress becomes overwhelming and prolonged, the risks for mental health problems and medical problems increase." [82] Also, on that note, some studies have found language to deteriorate mental health and even harm humans. [83] Cultural factors There are significant variations in the cultural views of mental illness across cultures. [84] Culture influences the epidemiology, phenomenology, outcome, and treatment of mental illness. [85] Culture has multiple roles to play in the expression of the psychopathological disorder. [86] Environmental factors This section is an excerpt from Effects of climate change on mental health. [edit] Smoke in Sydney (Australia) from large bushfires (in 2019) directly affected some people's mental health. The likelihood of wildfires is increased by climate change. The effects of climate change on mental health and well-being can be somewhat harmful, especially for vulnerable populations and those with pre-existing mental severe illnesses. [87] There are three broad pathways by which these effects can take place: directly, indirectly, or via awareness. [88] The direct pathway includes stress-related conditions caused by exposure to extreme weather events, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Scientific studies have linked mental health outcomes to climate-related exposures—heat, humidity, rainfall, drought, wildfires, and floods. [89] The indirect pathway can be via disruption to economic and social activities, such as when an area of farmland is less able to produce food. The third pathway can be mere awareness of the climate change threat, even by individuals not otherwise affected by it. Several studies have measured mental health outcomes through indicators such as psychiatric hospital admissions, mortality, self-harm, and suicide rates. Vulnerable populations and life stages include people with pre-existing mental illness, Indigenous peoples, children, and adolescents. The emotional responses to the threat of climate change can consist of eco-anxiety, ecological grief, and eco-anger. [90] [91] While unpleasant, such emotions are often not harmful and can be rational responses to the degradation of the natural world, motivating adaptive action. [92] Assessing the exact mental health effects of climate change is difficult; increases in heat extremes pose risks to mental health, which can manifest themselves in increased mental health-related hospital admissions and suicidality. [93]: 9 Protection and promotion See also: Prevention of mental disorders "The terms mental health promotion and prevention have often been confused. Promotion is defined as intervening to optimize positive mental health by addressing determinants of positive mental health (i.e. protective factors) before a specific mental health problem has been identified, with the ultimate goal of improving the positive mental health of the population. Mental health prevention is defined as intervening to minimize mental health problems (i.e. risk factors) by addressing determinants of mental health problems before a specific mental health problem has been identified in the individual, group, or population of focus with the ultimate goal of reducing the number of future mental health problems in the population." [94] [95] The root of the issue must be resolved to improve mental health. "Prevention emphasizes the avoidance of risk factors; promotion aims to enhance an individual's ability to achieve a positive sense of self-esteem, mastery, well-being, and social inclusion." [96] Mental health promotion attempts to increase protective factors and healthy behaviors that can help prevent the onset of a diagnosable mental disorder and reduce risk factors that can lead to the development of a mental illness. [94] Yoga is an example of an activity that calms one's entire body and nerves. [97] According to a study on well-being by Richards, Campania, and Muse-Burke, "mindfulness is considered to be a purposeful state; it may be that those who practice it believe in its importance and value being mindful, so that valuing of self-care activities may influence the intentional component of mindfulness." [36] Mental health is conventionally defined as a hybrid of the absence of a mental disorder and the presence of well-being. The focus is increasing on preventing mental disorders. Prevention is beginning to appear in mental health strategies, including the 2004 WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders," the 2008 E.U. "Pact for Mental Health," and the 2011 U.S. National Prevention Strategy. [98] [99] [page needed] Some commentators have argued that a pragmatic and practical approach to mental disorder prevention at work would be to treat it the same way as physical injury prevention. [100] Prevention of a disorder at a young age may significantly decrease the chances that a child will have a condition later in life and shall be the most efficient and effective measure from a public health perspective. [101] Prevention may require the regular consultation of a physician at least twice a year to detect any signs that reveal any mental health concerns. Additionally, social media is becoming a resource for prevention. In 2004, the Mental Health Services Act[102] began to fund marketing initiatives to educate the public on mental health. This California-based project is working to combat the negative perception of mental health and reduce its stigma. While social media can benefit mental health, it can also lead to deterioration if not appropriately managed. [103] Limiting social media intake is beneficial. [104] Studies report that patients in mental health care who can access and read their Electronic Health Records (EHR) or Open Notes online experience increased understanding of their mental health, feeling in control of their care, and enhanced trust in their clinicians. When reading their mental health notes, patients also reported feelings of greater validation, engagement, remembering their care plan, and acquiring a better awareness of potential side effects of their medications. Other common experiences were that shared mental health notes enhance patient empowerment and augment patient autonomy. [105] [106][107] [108][109][110] Care navigation Main article: Mental health care navigator Mental health care navigation helps to guide patients and families through the fragmented, often confusing mental health industries. Care navigators work closely with patients and families through discussion and collaboration to provide information on the best therapies and referrals to practitioners and facilities specializing in particular forms of emotional improvement. The difference between therapy and care navigation is that the care navigation process provides information and directs patients to therapy rather than providing therapy. Still, care navigators may offer diagnosis and treatment planning. Though many care navigators are also trained therapists and doctors. Care navigation is the link between the patient and the below therapies. A clear recognition that mental health requires medical intervention was demonstrated in a study by Kessler et al. of the prevalence and treatment of mental disorders from 1990 to 2003 in the United States. Despite the prevalence of mental health disorders remaining unchanged during this period, the number of patients seeking treatment for mental disorders increased threefold. [111] Methods Pharmacotherapy Pharmacotherapy is a therapy that uses pharmaceutical drugs. Pharmacotherapy is used in the treatment of mental illness through the use of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and the use of elements such as lithium. It can only be prescribed by a medical professional trained in the field of Psychiatry. Physical activity Physical exercise can improve mental and physical health. Playing sports, walking, cycling, or doing any form of physical activity triggers the production of various hormones, sometimes including endorphins, which can elevate a person's mood. [112] Studies have shown that, in some cases, physical activity can have the same impact as antidepressants when treating depression and anxiety. [113] Moreover, cessation of physical exercise may adversely affect some mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety. This could lead to adverse outcomes such as obesity, skewed body image, and many health risks associated with mental illnesses. [114] Exercise can improve mental health, but it should not be used as an alternative to therapy. [115] Activity therapies Activity therapies, also called recreation and occupational therapy, promote healing through active engagement. An example of occupational therapy would be promoting an activity that improves daily life, such as self-care or improving hobbies. [116] Similarly, recreational therapy focuses on movement, such as walking, yoga, or riding a bike. [117] Each of these therapies has proven to improve mental health and has resulted in healthier, happier individuals. In recent years, for example, coloring has been recognized as an activity that has been proven to significantly lower the levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety in many studies. [118] Expressive therapies Expressive or creative arts therapies are a form of psychotherapy involving the arts or art-making. These therapies include art therapy, music therapy, drama therapy, dance therapy, and poetry therapy. It has been proven that music therapy is an effective way of helping people with mental health disorders. [119] NICE approves drama therapy for the treatment of psychosis. [120] Psychotherapy Main article: Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is the general term for the scientifically based treatment of mental health issues based on modern medicine. It includes some schools, such as gestalt therapy, psychoanalysis, cognitive behavioral therapy, psychedelic therapy, transpersonal psychology/psychotherapy, and dialectical behavioral therapy. Group therapy involves any treatment in a setting involving multiple people. It can include psychodynamic groups, expressive therapy groups, support groups (including the Twelve-step program), problem-solving, and psychoeducation groups. Self-compassion Main article: Self-compassion According to Neff, self-compassion consists of three main positive components and their negative counterparts: Self-Kindness versus Self-Judgement, Common Humanity versus Isolation, and Mindfulness versus Over-Identification. [121] Furthermore, there is evidence from a study by Shin & Lin suggesting specific components of self-compassion can predict specific dimensions of positive mental health (emotional, social, and psychological well-being). [122] Social-emotional learning Further information: Social-emotional development § Social-emotional learning & development in schools The Collaborative for academic, social, and emotional learning (CASEL) addresses five broad and interrelated competence areas. It highlights examples for each: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making. [123] A meta-analysis was done by Alexandru Boncu, Iuliana Costeau, & Mihaela Minulescu (2017), looking at social-emotional learning (SEL) studies and the effects on emotional and behavioral outcomes. They found a small but significant effect size (across the studies looked into) for externalized problems and social-emotional skills. [124] Meditation Main articles: Meditation and Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy The practice of mindfulness meditation has several potential mental health benefits, such as bringing about reductions in depression, anxiety, and stress. Mindfulness meditation may also be effective in treating substance use disorders. [129] Lucid Dreaming Lucid dreaming is associated with greater mental well-being. It also was not associated with poorer sleep quality or with cognitive dissociation. [130] There is also some evidence lucid dreaming therapy can help with nightmare reduction. Mental fitness Mental fitness is a mental health movement that encourages people to intentionally regulate and maintain their emotional well-being through friendship, regular human contact, and activities that include meditation, calming exercises, aerobic exercise, mindfulness, having a routine, and maintaining adequate sleep. Mental fitness is intended to build resilience against everyday mental health challenges to prevent an escalation of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and help them cope with the escalation of those feelings if they occur. [132] Spiritual counseling Spiritual counselors meet with people in need to offer comfort and support, help them better understand their issues, and develop a problem-solving relationship with spirituality. These counselors deliver care based on spiritual, psychological, and theological principles. QUESTION
Module #1: Evidence-based practice as it relates to population-based nursing combines clinical practice and public health through the use of population health sciences in clinical practice (Heller & Page, 2002). Epidemiology is the science of public health. In addition, the focus of population-based care is on populations at risk, comparison groups, and demographic factors (Curley & Vitale, 2012).

Discussion Question for Initial Post: Select a population of your interest (I am in the mental health adolescents population) – it can be the patient group you care for in your work setting, or any group of laypeople you’re especially interested in (e.g., school children, low-income seniors). Why is a population health approach needed to promote health and wellness in this population? What are the determinants of their health status? What is the APRN role in improving health and wellness in the population you selected?

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1. Professional & Expert Writers: Nursing Solved only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Nursing Solved are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Nursing Solved is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Nursing Solved we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.