Let us consider hypertension as the diagnosis for this response. Hypertension, often known as high blood pressure, is a frequent clinical disorder. There are various types of drugs used to treat hypertension. I will review the drugs’ action methods, therapeutic actions, monitoring measures, probable adverse effects, and any associated toxicities.
1. Hypertension Medications: a) ACE inhibitors (e.g., Lisinopril):
– Mechanism of Action: By inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, is reduced.
– Therapeutic Effect: Dilates blood vessels, decreases peripheral resistance and lowers blood pressure.
– Blood pressure, renal function (creatinine), and potassium levels are all monitored.
– Nursing Interventions: Regularly check blood pressure, look for symptoms of hypotension, and educate patients about the necessity of compliance and potential side effects (e.g., dry cough).
b) Beta-blockers (for example, Atenolol):
– Mechanism of Action: By inhibiting beta-adrenergic receptors, the effects of sympathetic activation on the heart and blood vessels are reduced.
– Therapeutic Action: Reduces heart rate, cardiac output, and blood pressure.
– Blood pressure, heart rate, indications of bradycardia or aggravation of heart failure are all monitored.
– Nursing Interventions: Before administering, check blood pressure and heart rate; use caution in asthma or heart block patients.
Calcium channel blockers (for example, amlodipine):
– Mechanism of Action: Calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle are blocked, resulting in decreased calcium inflow and vasodilation.
– Therapeutic Effects: Dilates coronary and peripheral arteries and reduces blood pressure.
– Blood pressure, pulse rate, symptoms of peripheral oedema, and signs of heart failure aggravation are all monitored.
Nurse Interventions: Assess for evidence of hypotension, peripheral oedema, and side effects such as dizziness or headache.
2. Therapeutic Applications of Cardiovascular Medications: ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers may also treat heart failure and post-myocardial infarction.
Calcium channel blockers can treat angina, arrhythmias, and Raynaud’s illness.
3. Potential Adverse Systemic Reactions:
Dry cough, angioedema, and hyperkalemia are side effects of ACE inhibitors.
– Beta-blockers: Bradycardia, hypotension, tiredness, and bronchospasm (in asthmatics).
Calcium channel blockers cause peripheral oedema, flushing, headaches, and dizziness.
4. Adverse Effects Monitoring and Treatment: – Evaluate vital signs, electrolyte levels, and symptoms of adverse effects regularly.
– Notify your healthcare provider of any substantial changes for further assessment.
– Treatment will vary depending on the exact adverse effect. However, it may include modifying the prescription dosage, terminating the drug, or providing additional medications to alleviate symptoms.
5. Potential Toxicities and Developmental Issues: – Hypertension medications have a narrow therapeutic index, and high doses might be harmful.
– Specific drugs and patient variables (e.g., pregnancy, pediatric population) influence developmental problems.
– Healthcare practitioners must consider the pregnancy category and change drug recommendations accordingly. Some drugs are prohibited or require special monitoring during pregnancy.
Please remember that this response is only a general overview and should not be used to replace expert medical advice. A qualified healthcare provider should evaluate a patient’s prescriptions and considerations based on unique circumstances.
Consider a common diagnosis for patients in your clinical experience. If you are not currently in clinical, identify medications related to a diagnosis you are familiar with.
What medication is your patient taking? Identify the mechanism of action and therapeutic action of medications in use for constipation, urinary tract issues, hypertension, atherosclerosis, angina, dysrhythmias, anticoagulants, antiplatelet and thrombolytic drugs.
Many of the cardiovascular medications have multiple therapeutic uses. What are these meds being used for?
What are the therapeutic actions that you will be monitoring for? Can you monitor them with nursing interventions?
What are the potential systemic adverse reactions to the medications? How will you monitor for those adverse effects? How will they be treated?
Are there potential toxicity’s related to any medication your patient is taking? What developmental concerns might the healthcare provider need to consider with your patient related to these medications?