Your assignment is just a click away

We have the best writers

We guarantee you plagiarism free, well formatted, grad A+ papers!

Introduction to health statistics

Introduction to health statistics

Introduction to health statistics

QUESTION
Part I (approximately 1–1½ pages, total):

Copy and paste the following examples (1-6 below), then respond by classifying each of the following variables as either: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio. Provide a brief explanation where indicated.

A researcher studying lifespan categorizes individuals into single, married, divorced, or widowed. What type of variable measurement is this?
A cognitive scientist places her subjects into categories based on how anxious they tell her that they are feeling: “not anxious,” “mildly anxious,” “moderately anxious,” and “severely anxious,” and she uses the numbers 0, 1, 2 and 3 to label categories where lower numbers indicate less anxiety. What type of variable measurement is this? Are the categories mutually exclusive?
A Physician diagnoses the presence or absence of disease (i.e., yes or no). What type of variable measurement is this?
A person weighing 200 lbs. is considered to be twice as heavy as a person weighing 100 lbs. In this case, what type of measurement is body weight?
A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patients and reports them in units of degrees Farenheit as part of a study. What type of variable measurement is this?
Patients rate their experience in the emergency room on a five point scale from poor to excellent (1 = very poor, 2 = not very good, 3 = neither good nor bad, 4 = quite good, and 5 = excellent). What type of variable measurement is this? Is the difference between a 1 and a 2 necessarily the same as the difference between a 3 and a 4? Explain briefly.
Part II: Statistics (1/2 page)

Given what you’ve learned in this module about the meaning of “statistics,” choose one of the examples from Part I (1-6), and raise a relevant question of your own that could be answered by a statistician. Then without answering your own question, explain how a pattern could be studied or a useful prediction made based on data that are to be collected.

Part III: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data (approximately 1–1½ pages)

A health scientist wishes to measure how well participants diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are coping. Explain how a variable such as coping could be measured quantitatively or qualitatively.
Introduction to health statistics

ANSWER
Introduction to health statistics

Student’s Name;
Institutional Affiliation:
Course:
Date:

Part I:
Classify each of the following variables as either: nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio. Provide a brief explanation where indicated.
A researcher studying lifespan categorizes individuals into single, married, divorced, or widowed. What type of variable measurement is this? The data measurement scale is nominal since they have only been used to label variables, are mutually exclusive; the order is arbitrary and has no numerical significance (Dalati, 2018). One may also say the nominal data have some form of order on how they appear in life stages.
A cognitive scientist places her subjects into categories based on how anxious they tell her that they are feeling: “not anxious,” “mildly anxious,” “moderately anxious,” and “severely anxious,” and she uses the numbers 0, 1, 2 and 3 to label categories where lower numbers indicate less anxiety. What type of variable measurement is this? Are the categories mutually exclusive? The variable measurement is for ordinal scales since the order of the values is significant in the study only that the difference between each variable is undefined. It is easy to discern that “moderately anxious” is better than “severely anxious,” but one cannot quantify how much better one is. Ordinal scales have values that have to be considered less than or greater than a case in a different class (Dalati, 2018). Though the variables can be assigned numbers, they are always non-numeric concepts such as anxiety. The categories are mutually exclusive since one cannot have anxiety that falls into two categories.
A Physician diagnoses the presence or absence of disease (i.e., yes or no). What type of variable measurement is this? The variable measure lies under a nominal scale since it is just a label for the presence or absence of disease and has no numerical value. It is a sub-type of nominal scales that are dichotomous, meaning only two categories are present.
A person weighing 200 lbs. is considered to be twice as heavy as a person weighing 100 lbs. In this case, what type of measurement is body weight? Bodyweight lies on the ratio scale since it is a variable that has a defined value of 0.0(absolute zero) and tells an exact value between several units (Dalati, 2018). An absolute zero makes it easy to apply the variable in inferential and descriptive statistics. Bodyweight is a ratio scale concerning statistical analysis; it can be meaningfully manipulated from addition, subtraction, and division, multiplication, including measures of central tendency, dispersion, and variation coefficient.
A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patients and reports them in units of degrees Fahrenheit as part of a study. What type of variable measurement is this? Temperature is an interval scale that has a defined difference between its values, and the order is known. The difference between one value and the next is the same. The key issue with interval scales is that there is no absolute zero (Dalati, 2018); that is, a temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit does not mean that there is no temperature; rather, it is a value on the scale. Further, negative values have meaning. The other characteristic of the interval scale is that with the various statistical analysis, it is difficult to compute ratios as it lacks a true zero, and they cannot be meaningfully multiplied or divided. For example, 30 degrees Fahrenheit is no thrice as hot as 10 degrees Fahrenheit.
Patients rate their experience in the emergency room on a five-point scale from poor to excellent (1 = very poor, 2 = not very good, 3 = neither good nor bad, 4 = quite good, and 5 = excellent). What type of variable measurement is this? Is the difference between a 1 and a 2 necessarily the same as the difference between a 3 and a 4? Explain briefly.
The patient experience is a non-numeric concept, and the scale only shows the orders of the values but has no meaningful difference between them; hence it is an interval scale (Dalati, 2018). The difference between the variables is undefined, but we understand that the value of 4 is better than 3 and that 1 is worse than 2. The problem is that the values between are incomprehensible since one cannot understand the value between very poor and not very good or neither god or quite good.
Part II: Statistics (1/2 page)
Given what you’ve learned in this module about the meaning of “statistics,” choose one of the examples from Part I (1-6), and raise a relevant question of your own that could be answered by a statistician. Then without answering your own question, explain how a pattern could be studied or a useful prediction made based on data that are to be collected.
Using Example 5; A nurse takes measurements of body temperature on patients and reports them in units of degrees Fahrenheit as part of a study. We assume the study is in a clinical setting and involves the treatment of 10 patients with flu for seven days.
Formulated question: What is the change in the average temperature of the patients during admission and seven days later during discharge?
Patients admitted for flu usually experience high temperatures as one of the symptoms; therefore, with treatment, it is expected that within the seven-day period, the patients’ health would improve, including observing a drop in temperature to normal levels. Daily collection of the temperature data would show the trend and even be used to assess whether the treatment method is effective. Successful drop in temperature to normal levels within the study period can be used to generalize that the treatment methods applied are suitable to use in flu patients.
Part III: Quantitative vs. Qualitative Data
A health scientist wishes to measure how well participants diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder are coping. Explain how a variable such as coping could be measured quantitatively or qualitatively.
Coping means to be in a position to overcome or solve personal challenges by mastering ways of minimizing and tolerating various stressors. Therefore ‘coping’ is a concept that is complex to value or measure; hence it is best to use qualitative methods of research which are easy to interpret. Coping is a non-quantifiable aspect, and therefore it would be appropriate to use a method that entails an ordinal scale. There are different tools that can be used to evaluate coping strategies for patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, one of which includes the use of a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). CAPS-5 can be used to make a PTSD diagnosis within the past week, month, and even a lifetime (Hunt et al., 2018). The tool has 30 standardized items structure of which questions that target given symptoms, including other aspects such as subjective distress, onset, and duration of symptoms, the progress of symptoms since the last CAPS administration, impact of symptoms on daily functioning, PTSD severity, response validity among other aspects (Weathers et al., 2018). The tool involves an interview of about 45- 60 minutes.
When measuring PTSD coping, the health scientist has to assess the scores of the CAPS-5. The tool separates intensity and frequency since they are rated and assessed differently. Frequency is recorded directly as told by the patient; for example, a number of times they have encountered a given symptom, while the intensity is rated using four limits, which are minimal, clearly present, pronounced, and extreme. Then the frequency and intensity results are converted into a single 5-point symptom severity scale that ranges from 0 to 4. The five points represent the severity rating in an ordinal scale whose figures and representation are 0 = absent, 1 = mild/sub-threshold, 2 = moderate/threshold, 3 = severe/markedly elevated, and 4 = extreme/incapacitating (Weathers et al., 2018). Each rating has its symptoms and meaning and dictates the care plan to administer to the client.

References
Dalati, S. (2018). Measurement and Measurement Scales. In Modernizing the Academic Teaching and Research Environment (pp. 79-96). Springer, Cham.
Hunt, J. C., Chesney, S. A., Jorgensen, T. D., Schumann, N. R., & deRoon-Cassini, T. A. (2018). Exploring the gold-standard: Evidence for a two-factor model of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for the DSM–5. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(5), 551.
Weathers, F. W., Bovin, M. J., Lee, D. J., Sloan, D. M., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., … & Marx, B. P. (2018). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM–5 (CAPS-5): Development and initial psychometric evaluation in military veterans. Psychological assessment, 30(3), 383.

Introduction to health statistics

Our Service Charter

1. Professional & Expert Writers: Nursing Solved only hires the best. Our writers are specially selected and recruited, after which they undergo further training to perfect their skills for specialization purposes. Moreover, our writers are holders of masters and Ph.D. degrees. They have impressive academic records, besides being native English speakers.

2. Top Quality Papers: Our customers are always guaranteed of papers that exceed their expectations. All our writers have +5 years of experience. This implies that all papers are written by individuals who are experts in their fields. In addition, the quality team reviews all the papers before sending them to the customers.

3. Plagiarism-Free Papers: All papers provided by Nursing Solved are written from scratch. Appropriate referencing and citation of key information are followed. Plagiarism checkers are used by the Quality assurance team and our editors just to double-check that there are no instances of plagiarism.

4. Timely Delivery: Time wasted is equivalent to a failed dedication and commitment. Nursing Solved is known for timely delivery of any pending customer orders. Customers are well informed of the progress of their papers to ensure they keep track of what the writer is providing before the final draft is sent for grading.

5. Affordable Prices: Our prices are fairly structured to fit in all groups. Any customer willing to place their assignments with us can do so at very affordable prices. In addition, our customers enjoy regular discounts and bonuses.

6. 24/7 Customer Support: At Nursing Solved we have put in place a team of experts who answer to all customer inquiries promptly. The best part is the ever-availability of the team. Customers can make inquiries anytime.