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Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a serious medical condition that increases the risk of heart, brain, kidney, and other diseases.
Worldwide, an estimated 1.28 billion adults aged 30-79 years have hypertension, with the majority (two-thirds) living in low- and middle-income countries.
An estimated 46% of hypertensive adults are unaware of their condition.

Only 42% of adults with hypertension are diagnosed and treated.
One in every five adults (21%) has hypertension under control.
Hypertension is a leading cause of death worldwide.
One of the global noncommunicable disease targets is to reduce hypertension prevalence by 33% between 2010 and 2030.
What exactly is hypertension?
Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the body’s arteries, which are the major blood vessels. Hypertension is defined as an abnormally high blood pressure.
Blood pressure is represented by two numbers. The first (systolic) number represents blood vessel pressure when the heart contracts or beats. The second (diastolic) number represents the pressure in the vessels between heartbeats.

Hypertension is diagnosed when the systolic blood pressure readings on two different days are 140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure readings on both days are 90 mmHg.

What are the hypertension risk factors?
Unhealthy diets (excessive salt consumption, a diet high in saturated fat and trans fats, a low intake of fruits and vegetables), physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use, and being overweight or obese are all modifiable risk factors.

A family history of hypertension, age over 65, and co-existing diseases such as diabetes or kidney disease are non-modifiable risk factors.

What are the most common hypertension symptoms?
The term “silent killer” refers to hypertension. Most hypertensive people are unaware of their condition because there are no warning signs or symptoms. As a result, it is critical that blood pressure be measured on a regular basis.

Early morning headaches, nosebleeds, irregular heart rhythms, vision changes, and ear buzzing are some of the symptoms that can occur. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anxiety, chest pain, and muscle tremors are all symptoms of severe hypertension.

The only way to detect hypertension is to have blood pressure measured by a medical professional. It is quick and painless to have your blood pressure taken. Although individuals can measure their own blood pressure using automated devices, a professional evaluation is necessary for risk assessment and the identification of associated conditions.

What are the side effects of uncontrolled hypertension?
Hypertension, among other complications, can cause serious heart damage. Excessive pressure can harden arteries, reducing blood and oxygen flow to the heart. This increased blood pressure and decreased blood flow can result in:
Angina is a type of chest pain.
A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to the heart is cut off, causing heart muscle cells to die from a lack of oxygen. The greater the damage to the heart, the longer the blood flow is blocked.
Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood and oxygen to other vital organs.
Irregular heartbeat, which can result in death.
Hypertension can also cause a stroke by bursting or blocking arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain.
Furthermore, hypertension can damage the kidneys, eventually leading to kidney failure.
Why is hypertension such a concern in low- and middle-income countries?
The prevalence of hypertension varies by region and income level in a country. The WHO African Region has the highest prevalence of hypertension (27%), while the WHO Americas Region has the lowest prevalence (18%).

Adults with hypertension increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, with the majority of the increase occurring in low- and middle-income countries. This rise is primarily due to an increase in hypertension risk factors in those populations.

How can the impact of hypertension be lessened?
Reduced hypertension reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage, as well as other health issues.

Limiting salt consumption (to less than 5g daily).
Consume more fruits and vegetables.
Regularly engaging in physical activity.
Tobacco use should be avoided.
Cutting back on alcohol consumption.
Limiting your consumption of foods high in saturated fat.
Trans fats should be avoided or reduced in the diet.

Stress reduction and management.
Checking blood pressure on a regular basis.
High blood pressure treatment.
Managing additional medical conditions.
What is the WHO’s reaction?
The World Health Organization (WHO) is assisting countries in combating hypertension as a public health issue.

The WHO will issue a new guideline on the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults in 2021. The publication includes evidence-based recommendations for starting hypertension treatment as well as recommended follow-up intervals. The document also includes information on who in the health-care system can initiate treatment and the target blood pressure to be achieved for control.

In September 2016, WHO and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. CDC) launched the Global Hearts Initiative, which includes the HEARTS technical package, to assist governments in strengthening cardiovascular disease prevention and control. The HEARTS technical package’s six modules (Healthy-lifestyle counseling, Evidence-based treatment protocols, Access to essential medicines and technology, Risk-based management, Team-based care, and Monitoring Systems) offer a strategic approach to improving cardiovascular health in countries around the world.

In September 2017, WHO announced a collaboration with Resolve to Save Lives, a Vital Strategies initiative, to assist national governments in implementing the Global Hearts Initiative. The CDC Foundation, the Global Health Advocacy Incubator, the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the US CDC are also partners in the Global Hearts Initiative. Since the program’s launch in 2017 in 18 low- and middle-income countries, 3 million people have been placed on protocol-based hypertension treatment using person-centered care models. These programs show the viability and efficacy of standardized hypertension control programs.
Heart disease remains one of the top causes of mortality in the Unites States. Consider the various types of heart disease covered in class this week. For your discussion, complete these items:

The etiology of the selected heart disease
Modifiable factors
Non-modifiable factors
Use at least one scholarly source to support your findings. Examples of scholarly sources include academic journals, textbooks, reference texts, and CINAHL nursing guides. Be sure to cite your sources in-text and on a References page using APA format.

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