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(SOLVED)Historical Contributions of Nursing Leaders

(SOLVED)Historical Contributions of Nursing Leaders

Historical Contributions of Nursing Leaders

Give the names of three historical nursing leaders and explain how their contributions influenced community/public health nursing.
Florence Nightingale, Lillian Wald, and Nancy Millio are the three historical nursing leaders.

After the Crimean War, Florence Nightingale organized hospital nursing practice and nursing education in hospitals. Nightingale was concerned about environmental determinants of health and disease. She identified principles that continue to guide the practice of public and community nursing, such as the importance of a healthy environment, nutrition, rest, sanitation, and hygiene; these principles are still important components of community health nursing today (Kalnins, 1999).

Lillian Wald: the phrase public health used by Lillian Wald, founder of Henry Street Settlement. She describes nurses’ roles as addressing both the direct impact of illness and the underlying relationship between social, economic, and environmental disadvantage, as well as disease. Wald’s emphasis on illness prevention and health promotion was emphasized through health teaching, nursing interventions, and her use of the epidemiology method; these principles became major components of public health nursing practice (Buhler-Wilkerson, 1993).

Nancy Millio was a public health policy and education nurse leader. She created a prevention framework for community-oriented and population-focused care. She believed that community nursing could influence communities and population health through public policy (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

Explain the distinction between population, community, and aggregate using definitions and examples from the lecture.
Population: is a group of people having common personal or environmental characteristics. For example, all elders in a rural area

A community is a group or collection of people who interact socially and share common interests, characteristics, values, and goals. Residents of a small town, for example.

Aggregate: A subgroup or subpopulation that shares some characteristics or concerns. Pregnant teenagers in a school district, for example (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

Table 13-5’s program – Select one program and summarize its mission. Then, talk about how the program can assist nurses in providing culturally competent care.
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides access to breast and cervical cancer screening, diagnostic, and treatment services to low-income, uninsured, and underserved women. This program assists nurses in achieving cross-cultural communication, health-related beliefs and practices, health-problem management in culturally diverse populations and their perspectives, culture and socioeconomic factors, and culture and nutrition (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

Determine three roles that community health nurses can play. Using examples, explain what the CHN will do in each of the roles.
The community health nurse has three roles: care provider, educator, and collaborator. Care provider: The nurse’s role as a provider in community health means that she provides health services not only to individuals and families, but also to the entire community. The community health nurse places a special emphasis on health promotion and illness prevention. Assessment, observation, listening, communication, and counseling skills are becoming increasingly important in the role of care provider.

Health education is one of the most important functions of a CHN. The educator role in community health nursing is important because it allows for greater audience reach. CHN promotes client learning opportunities on a wide range of topics. As an educator, CHN conducts formal classes, shares information with clients, teaches self-care concepts, and promotes health.

Client and interdisciplinary team members or interagency groups working together to improve client and community health are referred to as collaborators. Collaborate with nurses, and other interdisciplinary members of the health care team to advocate health care environments that are beneficial to ethical practice and to the health and well-being of patients and community.
What exactly is upstream thinking? (Hint: look up McKinley’s analogy in the text.)
McKinley uses upstream thinking as an analogy for prevention. Instead of devoting all of one’s resources and energy to rescuing people, McKinley suggests preventing the problem from occurring in the first place. Primary prevention, a key concept in the community health approach, is described by the upstream analogy. Thinking upstream refers to actions that aim to change economic, political, and environmental factors that contribute to poor health (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

Identify a patient problem that you have recently encountered. Describe how you would approach the problem at the microscopic level. Explain a macrocosmic approach to the problem.
In my practice, I recently saw a patient who had been diagnosed with hypertension. Nursing diagnosis, interventions, and treatment are developed using a microscopic approach. The focus of nursing care for hypertensive patients is on therapeutic regimen adherence, lifestyle modifications, and complications prevention. Risk assessment, education of the patient and family on lifestyle changes, diet, exercise, and follow-up care were all performed.

The macroscopic method would be

How common is hypertension in different age, race, and population groups?
Which groups and subgroups have the highest rates of untreated hypertension?
What programs could assist in reducing the problems associated with untreated hypertension and lowering the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality?
What’s the connection between a macro perspective and upstream thinking?
Macroscopic thinking is similar to upstream thinking. Macroscopic is a broad concept that incorporates numerous variables to aid in the understanding of a health problem. Upstream is a more specific concept that focuses on the variables that influence the development of health problems. These two related concepts and their meanings can help nurses develop a critical eye when assessing the relevance of a theory to population health (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

When using a macroscopic approach, how does the Neuman System Model fit?
The Neuman system regards the client as an open system that responds to environmental stressors. The Neuman system model fits in a macrocosmic approach to facilitating optimum wellness through interventions aimed at achieving, maintaining, and retaining client stability through the use of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).

List three essential public health functions.
“Assessment” refers to the regular collection, analysis, and sharing of information about a community’s health conditions, risks, and resources.
Policy development is the use of information gathered during assessment to create local and state health policies and direct resources to those policies.
Assurance is concerned with the availability of essential health services throughout the community. It includes maintaining both public health agencies’ and private providers’ ability to manage day-to-day operations as well as the capacity to respond to critical situations and emergencies (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).
Write a brief summary of three shifts in perspective that a nurse must adopt when providing population-based care rather than individual-based care.
When providing population-based care, nurses must identify high-risk and vulnerable populations early in the care delivery process; address not only populations, but also subpopulations within populations; and develop outreach strategies (Nies, & McEwen, 2015).


K. Buhler-Wilkerson (1993). Giving people care: Lillian Wald’s legacy in public health nursing. 1778-1786 in the American Journal of Public Health, 83(12). doi:10.2105/AJPH.83.12.1778

I. Kalnins (1999). International Nursing Review, 46(2), 47-51, Sowing the Seeds of Public Health Nursing, 1920-1939. The URL

McEwen, M. Nies, and M. A. Nies (2015). Community/public health nursing: Promoting population health (6th ed., pp1-68). Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, Mo.

Historical Contributions of Nursing Leaders

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