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HA Cardiac Case Study

HA Cardiac Case Study

HA Cardiac Case Study


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of heart and blood vessel disorders. They are as follows:

  • Coronary heart disease is a condition that affects the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.
  • Cerebrovascular disease is a condition that affects the blood vessels that supply the brain.
  • Peripheral arterial disease is a condition that affects the blood vessels that supply the arms and legs.
  • Rheumatic heart disease – damage to the heart muscle and valves caused by streptococcal bacteria in a rheumatic fever;
  • Congenital disabilities that affect the normal development and functioning of the heart are caused by malformations of the heart structure from birth; and
  • Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are conditions where blood clots form in the leg veins and can dislodge and travel to the heart and lungs.

Heart attacks and strokes are typically sudden events caused by a clog that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common cause is an accumulation of fatty deposits on the inner walls of blood vessels that supply the heart or brain. Strokes can be caused by blood clots or bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain.


Often, there are no symptoms of the underlying blood vessel disease. A heart attack or stroke could be the first indication of underlying disease. Heart attack symptoms include:

  • Pain or discomfort in the chest center
  • Pain or discomfort in the arms, left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.

Furthermore, the individual may experience difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, light-headedness or faintness, a cold sweat, and turning pale. Shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and back or jaw pain is more common in women than men.

A stroke’s most common symptom is sudden weakness of the face, arm, or leg, usually on one side of the body. Other symptoms include the sudden appearance of:

Confusion, difficulty speaking or understanding speech; difficulty seeing with one or both eyes; difficulty walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; or fainting or unconsciousness.

People who are experiencing these symptoms should seek medical attention right away.

HA Cardiac Case Study


HA Cardiac Case Study

·  Case Study # 2: Cardiovascular 

·  Bates Assessment Videos – OSCE 1 – Chest Pain. See attached transcripts

·  Assess the case study

·  Answer the questions within the case study

1-  What possible causes of chest pain are you considering?

2-  What cardiovascular risk factors do you need to consider in this patient? And which one has the highest risk for coronary artery disease?

3-  List your diagnostic considerations in order of importance and explain your rationale.

4-  List 5 next steps in your diagnostic workup.

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