Case Study Questions
1). In which race and ethnic groups is DM more prevalent? Based on C.B. clinical manifestations, please compile the signs and symptoms that she is exhibiting that are compatible with the Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diagnosis.
2). If C.B. develop a bacterial pneumonia on her right lower lobe, how would you expect her Glycemia values to be? Explain and support your answer.
3). What would be the best initial therapy non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic to be recommended to C.B?
Question One: Constipation Definition
Constipation is a condition in which one experiences strain emptying bowels. This is associated with the stool being so hard that its movement is slow through the colon. It can also be defined as having less than three bowel movements a week (Camilleri M., 2017). Constipation is a major digestive problem, especially for adults over sixty years of age.
Risk Factors that might lead to constipation
Constipation is caused by: diets low in fiber, such as meat, milk, or cheese, desiccation, low exercise, routine changes such as traveling, pregnancy, old age, and the intake of certain medications such as antacids and painkillers (Moores, 2021). Constipation can also result from diseases in the intestines preventing the passage of bowel fillings such as ulcers or tumors.
Recommendations to patients suffering from constipation
Patients experiencing constipation are advised to take a lot of water, avoid dehydrating drinks such as alcohol and those containing caffeine, feed on diets rich in fiber, fruits, and vegetables, reduce consumption of foods with high fat such as meat and milk, take up more exercises, move bowels when the urge to is there and adding over-the-counter fiber supplements to their diet (Clinic, 2022).
Signs and Symptoms compatible with constipation from the case study
Going for a whole week with only one bowel movement, strains in bowel movement initiation, extremely hard stools, feeling bloated, and taking at least 10 minutes to initiate a bowel movement.
Other Symptoms of constipation
Other symptoms of constipation are a feeling of blockage in the rectum that prevents the movement of stool, feeling as though one cannot fully empty the stool from the rectum, severe abdominal cramps, and the presence of blood in the faecal material.
Possibility of anemia based on the case study
Constipation is a significant cause of anemia, mainly due to the drugs used to treat it (Goodman, 2020). Individuals who have constipation are easily attacked by anemia. Anemia is caused by the shortage of vitamin B12 which aids in the production of red blood cells. The deficiency of Vitamin B12 may be aided by the use of antacids to treat ulcers or heartburn. The Aluminum hydroxide this patient used is a possible cause of anemia. Also, naproxen causes low red blood cells, leading to anemia. Due to the above predisposing factors, the patient is likely to be diagnosed with anemia.
Question two: Race in which Diabetes Mellitus is Most prevalent
Diabetes mellitus is more prevalent among American Indians, Pacific Islanders, African and Asian Americans, and Asian Indians. This is attributed to factors such as body type, where some races have more body fats than others, diets, and lifestyles.
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus exhibited by the patient
Frequent feeling of thirst, the ‘female infections’ as diabetes mellitus leads to vaginal infections, frequent urination, and numbness and weakness on the left foot.
Glycemia values if C.B develops bacterial pneumonia on her right lower lobe
Pneumonia raises the blood glucose level, which increases the production of adrenaline and cortisol. These, in turn, decrease insulin and raise the blood sugar level (Sattar S.B.A and Sharma, 2018). Additionally, Diabetic patients are more likely to acquire pneumonia infections. Best Initial therapy non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic to be recommended to C.B
The best non –pharmacologic therapy recommended to C.B is carrying out physical exercises and carrying out modifications to her lifestyle, such as checking on her diets. It is also advisable for her to take influenza vaccines, to avoid contracting pneumonia (A, 2017).
The pharmacologic therapy C.B should undertake includes statin treatment, regardless of her cholesterol levels, and metformin to treat her condition. It is also advisable for her to take influenza vaccines to avoid contracting pneumonia.