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Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH

Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH

Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH
QUESTION
Select two of the following discussion questions for your discussion response. Indicate which questions you have chosen using the format displayed in the “Discussion Forum Sample.”

1. Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH.
2. What is the equation for the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffering system? How do actions at the lungs and kidneys affect this equation and thus compensate for alterations in plasma pH levels?
3. How do changes in plasma osmolality affect the physiology of erythrocytes?
Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH

ANSWER
The acidity I a solution is analyzed by accessing the concentration of H+ in the solution. The body usually has a narrow pH range of 7.35-7.45, which is a trivial alkalotic state coordinated by different systems to aid in maintaining homeostasis. The buffer systems respond to changes in pH by removing or retaining carbon dioxide to change H2CO3 amounts in the body by removing or adding H+ to change H2CO3 to HCO3 and vice versa. Removing or retaining particular electrolytes helps shift the balance of the body fluid hence maintaining homeostasis. When acidosis occurs, potassium moves to the extracellular space while H+ move to intracellular space to achieve the ionic balance (Mosenthal & Martin, 2021). The increment in extracellular potassium leads to moving into the bloodstream via diffusion, which results in serum hyperkalemia. The kidneys control this through the excretion of potassium in the urine. The kidney decreases or increases the amount of urine output based on the criteria to maintain the electrolytes within the standard range.
Question 2
HCO3 (Bicarbonate), H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid), CO2 (Carbon dioxide, H+ (Hydrogen Ions), H2O (Water).
CO2 + H2O <->H2CO3 <-> HCO3- + H+
Acid-based balance in one’s body depends on the sensitive regulation of H+ concentration to maintain the standard functions. Any pH and hydrogen changes could change the biological process in tissues and cells. H+ is the main constituent to balancing enzymatic reactions and membrane integrity to respond to pathological situations that alter the acid-base balance. The key regulators are the pulmonary and renal systems, but all organs depend on pH balance. The pulmonary system aids in regulating the pH by managing the elimination and retention of CO2 and changing the concentration of H2CO3. H2CO3 amounts can be increased by reducing the respiratory rate and maintaining the carbon dioxide to help control the H2CO3 and pH concentration. Lastly, the renal system manages the pH through reabsorbing HCO3 and excreting fixed acids. Glomeruli transport elements from the blood to renal tubules for filtration and reabsorption of some elements such as HCO3 and H+ of acid into the urine, and bicarb absorption occurs. The pH is alkaline. When this process does not happen, the pH turns acidic (Caldwell et al., 2021). Phosphate buffering and ammonia formation aid the kidneys in regulating PH.
Question 3
Erythrocytes are red blood cells that transfer inhaled oxygen from one’s lungs to other body tissue and cells that remove carbon dioxide from different tissues by transporting the CO2 back to the lungs for exhalation. The osmolality of the plasma is affected by the concentration of plasma sodium as water moves between interstitial fluid and plasma by hydrostatic pressure and osmosis through the capillary membrane (Richardson et al., 2021). Once the osmolality of plasma is lower than the red blood cells, this results in attracting water hence change in shape in the red blood cells by enlarging or shrinking. When changes in shape occur, the ability to remove carbon dioxide and transport oxygen is affected hence plasma viscosity.

Explain how acid-base physiology leads to the regulation of fluid balance and extra cellular pH

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