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Diabetes

Diabetes

QUESTION
Ms. Jones is 60 years old and obese. She has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and will be started on glyburide. She is very nervous about this diagnosis and concerned that she will need to give herself “shots.”

1).Explain the difference between diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2.
2).How does glyburide help decrease blood sugar levels?
3).What are the key teaching points for patients taking oral antidiabetic agents?

Diabetes
ANSWER

Diabetes

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Difference between Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic condition or illness that occurs in an individual’s body and makes the body unable to generate or produce enough Insulin. The inability to produce Insulin is prompted by the autoimmune destruction that occurs in the pancreas’s beta cells. This condition is often known to occur during childhood for its onset; however, it can also happen to adults. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disease caused by the array of dysfunction caused by hyperglycemia, which is known to have occurred from the combined resistance to actions by the Insulin or inadequate secretion of Insulin or excessive and inappropriate glucagon secretion within the body.
Based on their definition and how they occur, the most significant difference between the diabetes types 1 and 2 is that type 1 is a condition attributed as genetic while the type 2 diabetes is mainly influenced and caused by the type of lifestyle that an individual leads after quite some time and type 2 develops over time from individual lifestyle. Basically, in the type 1 diabetes Mellitus type, the immune system is known to attack the cells within the pancreas responsible for producing Insulin (Condorelli et al., 2018). Symptoms in type 1 diabetes appear quicker than those in type 2, which seem less quickly. Type 1 Mellitus is managed by taking Insulin; however, type 2 is controlled by lifestyle changes through exercise, diet, and received medication.
How Glyburide help reduce blood sugar levels
Glyburide is a remedy used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It is a combination of two medications used to treat diabetes. It is used along with other interventions such as individual diet and exercise to ensure that the blood sugar is regulated for the type 2 diabetic adults. The drug is known to work well for most adults, although it may cause stomach aches and low blood sugar in some people. The glyburide comprises two main medications meant to work together, namely glyburide and metformin. The glyburide is a form of sulfonylurea intended to lower blood sugar through the stimulation of the pancreas release of Insulin (Qais et al., 2021). The second edition, metformin, is a form of biguanide that is meant to lower the amount of blood sugar that the liver makes, consequently lowering the sugar in the stomach and therefore helping the body respond positively to the Insulin. Taking glyburide should be taught appropriately to patients so that they know the special diet to follow, eat healthily, and do regular exercise, which will help in weight reduction.
Critical points for patients taking oral antidiabetic agents
Oral medication for diabetes is meant to help the body control its level of blood glucose, especially among people whose bodies can still manage to produce more Insulin. Oral medicine help to control blood sugar, especially the patients with type 2 diabetes, and is often accompanied by the activities such as regular exercise and change in the diet. A patient who takes oral antidiabetic drugs should be instructed to be taking the medication at the same time each day and remember always to take the missed medication as soon as they remember to ensure they do not miss it at all. At the same time, the drugs should not be taken when an individual cannot eat (Shrestha et al., 2017). The patients should be educated that the drugs are meant to control the blood sugar but do not cure the disease; hence beware that the drugs are a long-term therapy for the body. Patients should be taught to avoid using alcohol excessively, which can cause poor reactions in the body leading to bad conditions such as flushing and hypoglycemia.
The patients should be aware of how to maintain and follow their recommended diet, and the medication recommended to them; at the same time, they should beware to exercise regularly to prevent hypo or hyperglycemic episodes. The patients should be advised to be cautious during stressful periods and notify the medical professionals anytime a change occurs. And in any case of unusual weight gain, swelling of ankles, short breath, weaknesses, and sore throat, among many more, the patients should always keep in touch with the doctors to consult. Finally, the patients must be taught to be consistent with routine follow-up examinations for efficacy during diabetes management.

References
Condorelli, R. A., La Vignera, S., Mongioì, L. M., Alamo, A., & Calogero, A. E. (2018). Diabetes mellitus and infertility: Different pathophysiological effects in type 1 and type 2 on sperm function. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00268
Qais, F. A., Sarwar, T., Ahmad, I., Khan, R. A., Shahzad, S. A., & Husain, F. M. (2021). Glyburide inhibits non-enzymatic glycation of HSA: An approach for the management of ages associated diabetic complications. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 169, 143–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.096
Shrestha, T. M., Aacharya, R. P., Shrestha, R., & KC, M. (2017). Foot care knowledge and practice among diabetic patients attending General Outpatient Clinic in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 07(08), 163–171. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojemd.2017.78015

Diabetes

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