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(SOLVED)Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

(SOLVED)Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

ANSWER

The infectious agent that causes acute rheumatic fever is group A beta-hemolytic streptococci; however, the body’s natural immune response to the infectious agent is delayed (McCance & Huether, 2014). If untreated, rheumatic fever can cause scarring and deformity of the cardiac structures and weaken the valves that connect the heart chambers, resulting in rheumatic heart disease.

Acute rheumatic fever can only start with a pharyngeal infection (sore throat) caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (strep throat). The immune system attacks healthy tissue in the heart, joints, skin, and CNS during acute rheumatic fever. It usually affects children aged 5 to 15. (McCance & Huether, 2014).

Fever, painful, tender, red, hot, swollen joints with migration to another joint, chest pain, fatigue, flat or slightly raised, painless rash with a ragged edge, small painless bumps beneath the skin, heart murmur, jerky uncontrolled body movement in the hands, feet, and face, and outbursts of unusual behavior such as crying or inappropriate laughing are all clinical manifestations of acute rheumatic fever ( Rheumatic fever 2022).

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The revised Jones criteria are a gold standard in diagnosing acute rheumatic fever. The criteria must include evidence of a streptococcal infection. For significant criteria, the diagnostic tool looks at low to moderate-high-risk populations and evidence of carditis and arthritis. Carditis, arthralgia, fever, and markers of inflammation such as peak ESR greater than or equal to 60mm and CRP greater than or equal to 3.0 mg/dL are minor criteria.

Treatment: If rheumatic fever is treated promptly with antibiotics, the infection will not progress to rheumatic heart disease. Antibiotic therapy initiated within nine days of the onset of infection, according to McCance and Huether (2014), will usually stop the progression to rheumatic heart disease. Treatment can alleviate pain, reduce inflammation-related damage, and prevent a recurrence.

Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

The Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research is a non-profit organization dedicated to medical education and research. (2022, April 19). Rheumatoid arthritis.

The Mayo Clinic. Retrieved on November 28, 2022, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-and-conditions.

External website links

conditions/rheumatic-fever/symptoms-causes/sync-20354588

K.L. McCance and S.E. Huether (Eds). (2014). Pathophysiology is the study of biological processes.

The cause of disease in adults and children (7th. ed.).

Mosby Elsevier, https://online.vitalsource.com/books/9780323088541

 

QUESTION

Describe the pathophysiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease, and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation (include the revised Jones Criteria), and treatment of rheumatic fever.

 

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