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Describe A Patient With A Mood Disorder And The Appropriate Nursing Interventions.

Describe A Patient With A Mood Disorder And The Appropriate Nursing Interventions.

What exactly is a mood disorder?
A mood disorder is a mental illness that primarily affects your emotional state. It is a condition in which you have long periods of extreme happiness, sadness, or both. Other persistent emotions, such as anger and irritability, are present in certain mood disorders.

It’s natural for your mood to shift depending on the circumstances. However, symptoms must be present for several weeks or more to be diagnosed with a mood disorder. Mood disorders can alter your behavior and impair your ability to perform routine tasks such as work or school.

Depression and bipolar disorder are two of the most common mood disorders.

What exactly are mood disorders?
Mood disorders include the following:
Depression and its various subtypes.
Bipolar disorder and its variants.
Premenstrual dysphoria is a mood disorder that occurs before menstruation.
Disorder of disruptive mood dysregulation.
Major or clinical depression is a common mental health condition. Feelings of sadness or hopelessness are common depressive symptoms. The condition can also impair thinking, memory, eating, and sleeping. Symptoms of clinical depression must last at least two weeks for a person to be diagnosed.

There are various types of depression, including:

Postpartum depression (peripartum depression): This type of depression occurs in women and people assigned female at birth during or after the end of a pregnancy (AFAB). After having a baby, women and people with AFAB experience hormonal, physical, emotional, financial, and social changes. These changes can result in postpartum depression symptoms.
Chronic depressive disorder is a long-term type of depression that must last at least two years. During this time, symptoms may occasionally become less severe. It is less potent than significant depression, but it is ongoing.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression that occurs during specific seasons. It usually begins in late autumn or early winter and lasts until the spring or summer. SAD episodes can also start in the late spring or summer, though this is less common. Winter seasonal affective disorder symptoms can be similar to those of major depression. During the spring and summer, they tend to fade or diminish.
Depression with psychosis: This is a severe depression accompanied by psychotic episodes such as hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that others do not) or delusions (having fixed but false beliefs). People who suffer from depression and psychosis are more likely to consider suicide.
Bipolar illness
Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings, energy fluctuations, thinking patterns, and behavior. There are several types of bipolar disorder, all of which involve significant mood swings known as hypomanic/manic and depressive episodes.

Bipolar disorder is classified into four types:

Bipolar I disorder: Individuals with bipolar I disorder have had one or more episodes of mania. Most people with bipolar I will experience both mania and depression, but a depression episode is not required for a diagnosis.
Bipolar II disorder: This disorder causes depression cycles similar to bipolar I. A person suffering from this illness may also experience hypomania, a milder mania. Hypomanic episodes are less intense and disruptive than manic episodes. A person suffering from bipolar II disorder can usually handle daily responsibilities.
Cyclothymia disorder (cyclothymia): Cyclothymic disorder is characterized by a chronically unstable mood state. For at least two years, they suffer from hypomania and mild depression.
Other bipolar and related disorders, both specified and unspecified: This type of bipolar disorder has symptoms that do not meet the criteria for the different types. However, people still experience significant abnormal mood changes.
Other types of mood disorders
Among the other mood disorders are:

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): This type of mood disorder occurs seven to ten days before menstruation and resolves within a few days of the menstrual period beginning. It is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Researchers believe this condition is caused by hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle. Anger, irritability, anxiety, depression, and insomnia are some of the symptoms.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD): DMDD is a mood disorder that affects children and adolescents. It is characterized by frequent outbursts of rage and irritability that is out of proportion to the situation. DMDD is more severe than IED, and anger is present most of the time, usually before age ten.
Is anxiety a type of mood disorder?
Anxiety (also known as GAD) is not a mood disorder. It is one of several anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and phobias. Anxiety, on the other hand, frequently precedes or coexists with mood disorders.

Who is affected by mood disorders?
Children, adolescents, and adults can all suffer from mood disorders.

Women and people with AFAB are twice as likely as men and people assigned male at birth to suffer from significant depression (AMAB).

How widespread are mood disorders?
Adults suffer from various mood disorders, the most common of which are depression and bipolar disorder. In the United States, approximately 7% of adults suffer from depression, while about 2.8% suffer from bipolar disorder.

Mood disorders are common in children and adolescents; approximately 15% have a mood disorder.

What are the signs of a mood disorder?
Each mood disorder has distinct symptoms or symptom patterns.

Symptoms of mood disorders typically affect your mood, sleep, eating habits, energy level, and thinking abilities (such as racing thoughts or loss of concentration).

Depressive symptoms, in general, include:

I was feeling down most of the time, if not every day.
A lack of energy or a sluggish feeling.
I am feeling insignificant or hopeless.
Loss of interest in previously enjoyable activities.
Suicidal or death-related thoughts.
Inability to concentrate or focus.
I was sleeping too much or too little.
Appetite loss or overeating.
Symptoms of hypomanic or manic episodes in general include:

I am excessively energized or elated.
Speech or movement that is quick.
Agitation, agitation, or irritability.
Spending more money than usual or driving recklessly are examples of risky behavior.
Thoughts that race.
Insomnia or difficulty sleeping.
What causes mood swings?
Several factors, according to researchers, contribute to the development of mood disorders, including:
Describe A Patient With A Mood Disorder And The Appropriate Nursing Interventions.
The amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex are the brain areas in charge of controlling your feelings and emotions. On brain imaging tests, people with mood disorders have an enlarged amygdala.
People with a strong family history of a mood disorder are more likely to develop mood disorders, indicating that mood disorders are potentially genetic/inherited.
Environmental considerations: Stressful Life changes, such as the death of a loved one, chronic stress, traumatic events, and childhood abuse, are major risk factors for developing a mood disorder later in life, particularly depression. Chronic illnesses like diabetes, Parkinson’s, and heart disease have also been linked to depression.
How are mood disorders identified?
Suppose you or your child is experiencing symptoms of a mood disorder. In that case, a healthcare provider may conduct a physical examination to rule out physiological causes, such as thyroid disease, other illnesses, or a vitamin deficiency.

Your provider will inquire about your medical history, current medications, and whether you or any family members have been diagnosed with a mood disorder. They may recommend that you see a mental health professional.

A psychologist or psychiatrist will conduct an interview or survey, asking questions about your symptoms, sleeping and eating habits, and other behaviors. They make diagnoses of mood disorders using criteria from the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

A mood disorder is generally diagnosed when sadness, joy, anger, or another emotion is:

Excessively intense and persistent.
Other mood disorder symptoms, such as changes in sleep or activity level, accompanied her.
Significantly reduces the individual’s ability to function.
How are mood disorders treated?
Treatment for mood disorders depends on the specific condition and symptoms. Usually, treatment involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy (also called talk therapy) (also called talk therapy). There are also other types of treatment, such as brain stimulation therapy.

Medications for mood disorders
Medications that healthcare providers may prescribe to help treat mood disorders include:

Antidepressants: Some of the most widely used drugs to treat depression and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (SSRIs). Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are also commonly prescribed and are similar to SSRIs in their action. Although studies show that different antidepressants work equally well, some antidepressants may be more effective depending on the person. Usually, an antidepressant takes four to six weeks before it begins to work. It’s essential to take the antidepressants as prescribed and continue taking them even if you feel better.
Mood stabilizers: These medications help regulate the mood swings that occur with bipolar disorder or other disorders. They reduce abnormal brain activity. Providers may prescribe mood stabilizers along with antidepressants in some cases. Some of the most widely used mood stabilizers include lithium and anticonvulsant drugs.
Antipsychotics (neuroleptics): People with bipolar disorder who experience mania or mixed episodes may be treated with an atypical antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drug, such as aripiprazole (Abilify®). Providers sometimes prescribe atypical antipsychotics to treat depression if symptoms aren’t controlled with an antidepressant alone.
Psychotherapy for mood disorders
Psychotherapy, also called talk therapy, is a term for various treatment techniques that help a person identify and change unhealthy emotions, thoughts, and behaviors.

Psychotherapy occurs with a trained, licensed mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. It can provide support, education, and guidance to you and your family to help you function better and increase your well-being.

Some of the more common types of psychotherapy include:

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a structured, goal-oriented type of psychotherapy. Mental health professionals use it to treat or manage mental health conditions and emotional concerns.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): DBT is a type of talk therapy based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but it’s specially adapted for people who experience emotions very intensely.
Psychodynamic therapy: This type of therapy is based on the idea that behavior and mental well-being are influenced by childhood experiences and problematic repetitive thoughts or feelings that are outside of your awareness (they’re unconscious).
Other treatments for mood disorders
Other treatments for mood disorders include:

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): ECT is a medical procedure that involves passing a mild electric current through your brain, causing a short seizure. This procedure is proven to have strong positive effects on severe, treatment-resistant mental health conditions, including depression and bipolar disorder. The ECT sessions can be performed on an outpatient basis. Usually, two or three sessions per week are required over two weeks or more. Generally, six to 12 sessions are needed.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): TMS is a treatment for people with severe depression that hasn’t been helped by at least one antidepressant medication. It’s a type of brain stimulation therapy. TMS elicits magnetic energy, which turns into an electrical current underneath your skull, to help regulate your emotions.
Light therapy: This technique has long been used to treat the seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (SAD). It’s based on supplementing natural sunlight with bright artificial light during the fall and winter.

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