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Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient

Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient

Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient
QUESTION
Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient. Why is this idea important?
Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient

ANSWER
Injuries
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among adolescents. In 2019, nearly 100 000 adolescents (10-19 years old) died in traffic accidents (2). Many of those killed were vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians, cyclists, and motorized two-wheelers. Road safety laws in many countries need to be expanded, and enforcement of such laws needs to be strengthened. Furthermore, young drivers require safety advice, and laws prohibiting driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs must be strictly enforced across all age groups. Young drivers should have lower blood alcohol levels than adults. Graduated licenses with zero tolerance for drunk driving are recommended for new drivers.

Drowning is also one of the leading causes of death among adolescents; it is estimated that over 40 000 adolescents, nearly three-quarters of whom were boys, drowned in 2019. Swimming instruction for children and adolescents is a critical intervention in preventing these deaths.

Violence
Interpersonal violence is one of the leading causes of death among adolescents and young people around the world. Its importance varies greatly by world region. It accounts for nearly one-third of all adolescent male deaths in low- and middle-income countries in the WHO Americas Region. Bullying was experienced by 42% of adolescent boys and 37% of adolescent girls, according to a global school-based student health survey. Sexual violence affects a significant proportion of young people: one in every eight young people reports sexual abuse.

Adolescent violence increases the risk of injury, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, mental health issues, poor school performance and dropout, early pregnancy, reproductive health issues, and communicable and noncommunicable diseases.

Promoting parenting and early childhood development, addressing school-based bullying prevention, programs that develop life and social skills, and community approaches to reduce access to alcohol and firearms are all effective prevention and response strategies. Adolescent survivors of violence can benefit from effective and compassionate care, including ongoing support, to help with the physical and psychological consequences.

Depression is one of the leading causes of illness and disability among adolescents, and suicide is the second leading cause of death among those aged 15 to 19. (2). In people aged 10 to 19, mental health conditions account for 16% of the global burden of disease and injury. Half of all adult mental health disorders begin before the age of 14, but the majority of cases go undiagnosed and untreated.

Many factors influence adolescents’ well-being and mental health. Violence, poverty, stigma, exclusion, and living in humanitarian and fragile settings can all increase the likelihood of developing mental health issues. The consequences of failing to address adolescent mental health conditions extend into adulthood, impairing both physical and mental health and limiting opportunities for adults to lead fulfilling lives.

Building socioemotional skills and providing psychosocial support to children and adolescents in schools and other community settings can help promote good mental health. Programs that help adolescents and their families strengthen their bonds and improve the quality of their home environments are also important. If problems arise, they should be identified and addressed as soon as possible by competent and caring health professionals.

Fact sheet on adolescent mental health

Drug and alcohol abuse
Adolescent alcohol consumption is a major concern in many countries. It can impair self-control and increase risky behaviors like unsafe sex or dangerous driving. It is a root cause of injuries (including those caused by car accidents), violence, and premature death. It can also cause health problems later in life and reduce life expectancy. More than a quarter of all people aged 15 to 19 in the world are current drinkers, totaling 155 million adolescents. In 2016, the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking among adolescents aged 15­-19 years was 13.6%, with males being most at risk.

Cannabis is the most commonly used psychoactive drug among young people, with approximately 4.7% of 15-16 year olds using it at least once in 2018. Alcohol and drug use in children and adolescents is linked to neurocognitive changes that can lead to behavioral, emotional, social, and academic issues later in life.

Alcohol and drug use prevention are important areas of public health action, and may include population-based strategies and interventions, as well as activities in schools, communities, families, and on an individual level. Setting a minimum age for purchasing and consuming alcohol, as well as eliminating marketing and advertising to minors, are two key strategies for reducing adolescent drinking.

Tobacco consumption
The vast majority of people who use tobacco today started when they were adolescents. It is critical to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors (those under the age of 18), raise the price of tobacco products through higher taxes, prohibit tobacco advertising, and ensure smoke-free environments. Globally, at least one out of every ten adolescents aged 13 to 15 uses tobacco, though this figure is much higher in some areas.

HIV/AIDS
In 2019, an estimated 1.7 million adolescents (ages 10 to 19) were living with HIV, with approximately 90% in the WHO African Region (3). While there has been a significant decrease in new infections among adolescents since a peak in 1994, adolescents still account for about 10% of new adult HIV infections, with adolescent girls accounting for three-quarters (4). Furthermore, while new infections may have decreased in many of the worst-affected countries, recent testing coverage remains low, implying that many adolescents and young people living with HIV may be unaware of their status (5).

Adolescents living with HIV have poorer access to antiretroviral therapy, treatment adherence, retention in care, and viral suppression. One important factor contributing to this is the scarcity of adolescent-friendly services, such as psychosocial interventions and support.

Adolescents and young people must understand how to protect themselves from HIV infection and have the resources to do so. Access to HIV prevention interventions such as voluntary medical male circumcision, condoms, and pre-exposure prophylaxis, better access to HIV testing and counselling, and stronger links to HIV treatment services for those who test HIV positive are all part of this.

Other contagious diseases
Adolescent deaths and disability from measles have decreased significantly as a result of improved childhood vaccination. Adolescent mortality from measles, for example, decreased by 90% in the African Region between 2000 and 2012.

Diarrhea and lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) are among the top ten causes of death in adolescents aged 10 to 14. These two diseases, along with meningitis, are among the top five causes of adolescent death in low- and middle-income African countries.

Infectious diseases, such as the human papillomavirus, which usually appears after the onset of sexual activity, can cause both short-term disease (genital warts) during adolescence and, more importantly, cervical and other cancers several decades later. Early adolescence (9-14 years) is the best time for HPV vaccination, and it is estimated that if 90% of girls worldwide receive the HPV vaccine, more than 40 million lives could be saved over the next century. However, it is estimated that only 15% of girls worldwide received the vaccine in 2019.

Describe 1 health promotion idea that you would discuss with your middle adolescent patient

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