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The late adulthood stage is a developmental stage that often starts from age 65 onwards. Renowned psychologist Erik Erikson defined this age as the optimum time to find peace and meaning in life as opposed to being delusional (Cherry, 2017). Many psychological theories of successful ageing exist, and they often advocate for the necessity to focus on aspects that sustain continued longevity. The disengagement theory is an example of these theories of successful ageing. The theory advocates for the need of individuals in late adulthood to withdraw from societal responsibilities and it would relieve them the pressure that comes with the responsibilities. The withdrawal of individuals in the late adulthood from society paves the way for younger blood; who have the energy and will power to fill the vacant positions. Another theory is the activity theory for continued longevity. This theory generally analyses the aspect of maintaining activity for a better quality of life. It is, therefore, clear that activity strengthens the physical, mental and social capabilities of an individual in the late adulthood developmental stage. Late adulthood is well known to cause both cognitive and physical changes to the body of an individual. Get Changes in Older Adults Essay HELP in Time.

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Physical and cognitive changes of aging in older adults

A common and notable physical change in the body of an ageing individual is the skin changes often seen by the formation of wrinkles. As the body of an individual goes through the late adulthood developmental stage, the skin continues to lose its elasticity and tends to become thinner hence leading to the development of wrinkles. It is, however, common sense that wrinkles do not necessarily mean that an individual is already in the late adulthood developmental stage. Another notable physical change in ageing individuals is Presbycusis. changes in Older Adults. Presbycusis, commonly referred to as age-related hearing loss, is one of the common physical ageing condition that affects late adults in the United States (Deal, 2016). changes in Older Adults. The hearing loss problem is often gradual and is often not noticeable until the individual experiences some significant hearing loss. Avoiding loud music exposure has been known to prevent age-related hearing loss; while the use of ear protection gear has been known to preserve an individual’s hearing capacity over time. Bones are also another example of body parts that undergo physical change during the ageing process. In the late adulthood developmental stage, bones tend to lose density and thus shrink over time. This loss in density makes them susceptible to breakage. Individuals are often advised to maintain a regular intake of calcium and vitamin D rich foods while also maintaining regular physical training exercise. Get Changes in Older Adults Essay HELP in Time. changes in Older Adults.

Cognitive developmental changes that are associated with late adulthood include; Short term memory that is as a result of memory decline, dementia and language difficulty and decline in numeric ability. Cognitive changes in ageing individuals are inevitable but vary according to the time it takes among various individuals. These individual variations in the onset of the cognitive change in late adulthood can be often attributed to; lifestyle factors, biological factors, psychological factors and also environmental factors (Chatterji, 2015). Get Changes in Older Adults Essay HELP in Time.

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The role of spiritual, social, work and family factors play in late life

Religion is well known to be an institutionalized structure as opposed to spirituality. Both, however, including social work and family, are well-known factors that shape the late adulthood developmental stage of individuals. Spirituality is known for its capacity to provide hope and a sense of meaning in life for ageing individuals. It is also associated with the individuals having better ability to cope with illnesses and disabilities. Spirituality, therefore, helps these individuals cope with the physical and cognitive changes they experience in the late adulthood stage. Life stresses with examples of financial strains and loss of a spouse, or a friend is also events that ageing individuals have cited to have coped through reliance on their spiritual beliefs. Spirituality, therefore, is essential in that it actively alienates the possibilities of individuals developing depression and anxiety. Maintaining an active social life has been known to be of great benefit to individuals in the late adulthood stage (Cherry, 2017). This is mainly because social life is essential in ensuring that they maintain their cognitive functions through active interactions with friends. Social and work factors both promote the capacity of an individual in the ageing process to engage themselves with the daily physical exercises. These physical exercises like walking or even riding a bicycle are vital in that they slow down the ageing process and are also remedies for cardiovascular conditions and also bone problems. Socializing is also vital in that individuals who are ageing and are known to have an active social connection often find themselves free from developing depression. It is, therefore, essential to prioritize the aspects of socialization and work for individuals in late adulthood. A family is an essential factor for the late adulthood developmental stage as; family exists as the most important social group to an ageing individual. The family also plays a critical role in caregiving for the ageing. In a real-life scenario, families often move in with their aged parents, and this often works out as the younger kids tend to prefer the company of the ageing parents. This creates a mutual bond between the family members and the ageing individuals often feel loved and appreciated by being surrounded by family. Get Changes in Older Adults Essay HELP in Time.

Comparison of clinical depression to geriatric depression

Geriatric depression often affects individuals over the age of 65 years and is relatively common than usual (Kok, 2017). The condition includes mental and emotional disorder with an accompanying feeling of sadness. Lasting depression in ageing individuals is, however, not normal. Some causes of geriatric depression can be related to a family history of the condition, traumatic events in the life of an individual and also low levels of neurotransmitter chemicals in an individual’s brain. Depression in geriatric patients differs significantly from clinical depression in that depression in ageing individuals often lasts longer and occurs alongside other illnesses. Depression in geriatric patients, unlike the other for younger patients, is often associated with an increased risk for cardiac diseases and higher possibilities of death from the said illnesses. Get Changes in Older Adults Essay HELP in Time.

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References

Chatterji, S., Byles, J., Cutler, D., Seeman, T., & Verdes, E. (2015). Health, functioning, and disability in older adults—present status and future implications. The lancet385(9967), 563-575.

Cherry, K. (2017). Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Psychology. Psychosocial Theories. Päivitetty14, 2017.

Deal, J. A., Betz, J., Yaffe, K., Harris, T., Purchase-Helzner, E., Satterfield, S., … & Health ABC Study Group. (2016). Hearing impairment and incident dementia and cognitive decline in older adults: the health ABC study. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences72(5), 703-709. changes in Older Adults

Kok, R. M., & Reynolds, C. F. (2017). Management of depression in older adults: a review. Jama317(20), 2114-2122.

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Question: Changes in Older Adults Essay.

Description 
In this assignment, you will review concepts related to the bereavement process across the life span, the four-component model of grieving, and Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying.
Objectives
Identify the key differences in dying and the bereavement process across the life span.
Discuss the grief process through the lens of the four-component model.
Describe Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance).
 Instructions
Review the concepts related to dying and bereavement across the life span, the four-component model, and Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying. Identify the key differences in dying and the bereavement process across the life span. Apply the four-component model to the grieving process at one of the life stages you identified in the first paragraph. Use your imagination or apply your personal experience to describe the grieving process for your chosen life stage in terms of the following: The context of the loss; refer to risk factors, such as whether the death was expected. Continuation of subjective meaning associated with loss, ranging from evaluations of everyday concerns to major questions about the meaning of life. Changing representations of the lost relationship over time. The role of coping and emotion regulation processes that cover all coping strategies used to deal with grief. Describe Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying and provide examples that illustrate each stage.
To complete the assignment address each of the following elements in a 3-5 page paper:
1. Identify the key differences in dying and the bereavement process across the life span.
2. Apply the four-component model to the grieving process at one of the life stages you identified in the first paragraph.
3. Use your imagination or apply your personal experience to describe the grieving process for your chosen life stage in terms of the following: 
The context of the loss; refer to risk factors, such as whether the death was expected.
Continuation of subjective meaning associated with loss, ranging from evaluations of everyday concerns to major questions about the meaning of life.
Changing representations of the lost relationship over time.
The role of coping and emotion regulation processes that cover all coping strategies used to deal with grief. 
4. Describe Elisabeth Kübler-Ross’s five stages of dying and provide examples that illustrate each stage.

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