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Bullying And The Consequences Including Suicide.

Bullying And The Consequences Including Suicide.

Suicide is the third leading cause of death in the United States for people aged 15 to 24.1 Teen suicide is not only a tragic global public health issue affecting young people. After losing a loved one, the surviving family members and friends are emotionally devastated. Approximately one in every six high school students has seriously considered suicide, and one in every twelve has attempted it.1 Furthermore, suicide rates among teens have been increasing in recent years, rising from 6.3% in 2009 to 7.8% in 2011, with more youth suicides reported as a result of bullying.2 Evidence also suggests a strong association between bullying and suicide, as suggested by recent bullying-related suicide deaths.
School Bullying

School bullying refers to bullying that occurs in the context of education, whether inside or outside of the classroom. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or social, and it is typically repeated over time. Physical bullying includes hitting, kicking, and slapping, as well as pushing, spitting, causing property damage, and/or stealing. Teasing, mocking, name-calling, verbal humiliation/intimidation, threats, cruelty, extortion, and/or racist, sexist, or homophobic taunts are all examples of verbal bullying. Bullying includes gossip, rumor spreading, embarrassment, alienation or exclusion from the group, and threatening others via the Internet, email, or text messaging.1 Studies show that bullies are aggressive children.1 They see violence as the appropriate way to interact with other children.2 They are insecure youth who believe that other children will harm them, so they fight to defend themselves and to demonstrate their strength. Bullies frequently exhibit impulsive behavior.1, 2.

Data Relating to School Bullying

Bullying has been observed to have the following effects: (1) It is estimated that 160,000 children skip school every day due to fear of being attacked or intimidated by other students; and (2) Ninety percent of fourth through eighth graders report being victims of bullying. (1) Bullying statistics show that revenge is the strongest motivation for school shootings, and that harassment and bullying have been linked to 75% of school-shooting incidents.2Eighty-seven percent of students said shootings are motivated by a desire to “get back at those who have hurt them.”

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According to the CDC, more than 1,700 adolescents aged 15-19 commit suicide each year.2,3 In 2009, the percentage of high school students who attempted suicide one or more times during the 12-month period was 6.3%, of which 8.1% were female and 4.6% were male.1,3 According to Yale University studies, victims of bullying are 2 to 9 times more likely to consider suicide than non-victims. When a child is depressed, they experience feelings of loneliness and sadness. They lose interest in activities, blame themselves for everything bad that happens to them, and believe that life isn’t worth living. Some young people express their depression through violence and aggression, which can lead to suicidal or destructive thoughts. As a result, interpersonal conflicts are the root cause of the majority of adolescent suicide attempts. The goal of the behavior appears to be to influence the actions or attitudes of others. As a result, the most important thing for a young person who is suicidal is to seek professional help as soon as possible, because suicidal feelings can be very strong.
Bullying And The Consequences Including Suicide.
Various studies on adolescent suicide

Country of study/age group
1st River, 2010. UK 2,002, 12-16 year old boys and girls 16-Kim YS, 2009, Korea 6,043, 4 and 10 year old boys and girls
ED Barker, 2008. UK 3,932, boys and girls aged 14 to 16, 17-Park HS, 2006, Korea 1300 high school boys and girls
3-Wolke D, 2001, UK 2377 children 6-8 years old, boys and girls 18-Kim YS, 2005, Korea 1718, boys and girls in grades 7 and 8.
4-Arseneault L, 2006, UK 2232 children, 5 and 7 years old, boys and girls. 19-Hepburn L,2012, USA 1,838 youth in 9th-12th grade, boys and girls.
5-Rivers I, 2013, North England 1,009, high school boys and girls 20-Klomek AB, 2011, USA 96, boys and girls aged 13 to 18.
6-Luukkonen AH, 2009, Finland 508 adolescents 12-17 years boys and girls 21-Klomek AB, 2007 USA 2342, 9 12th grade boys and girls.
7-Brunner R, Germany 5759, 9th grade, boys and girls.
22-Patrick DL, USA 27,752, 8, 10, and 12 grade boys and girls, 2013.
8-Baldry AC, 2003, Italy 998 adolescents aged 8 to 13 years, boys and girls; 23-Bauman S, 2013 USA 1491 high school students, boys and girls.
9-Rigby K, 1999, South Australia 845 secondary school, 12-16 boys and girls 24-Abdirahman, H.A Caribbean 2012 6780, middle school age, boys and girls.
10-A M Shaikh, 2013. Pakistan 4676, class 8-10, 14-16 boys and girls 25-LeVasseur MT, 2009
11-McMahon EM, Ireland 2012 1870, adolescents only 26-Hanley AJ, USA 2011, 448, 4-5 grade, 10-12 years boys and girls
12-Emmanuel R., 2007, Uganda Uganda Global School-Based Health Survey, adolescent 27-Klomek AB., 2008, Finland 2348 boys born in 1981.
13-Skapinakis P, 2011 Greece 5614, 16-18 year old boys and girls 28-Van der, 2003, Netherlands.
4811 boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 13
7137 students attended high school at 14-Owusu A in West Africa in 2011.
15-Cui S, China, 8778, adolescent boys and girls, 2011.
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In cross-sectional studies, there is a link between bullying and suicidal ideation and attempt.

Bullying and the dangers of self-harm

These cross-sectional studies found that victims of bullying have higher levels of suicidal ideation and a higher risk of attempting suicide than non-victims.4-6 The association between bullying and suicidal ideation/suicide attempts is not limited to students who were bullied but also reported by the bullies.5,6 These children have experienced rejection and are not popular among their peers, and they develop early personality problems.7 One study found that children who played multiple roles in bullying behavior, such as victim, bully, and bystander (children who witnessed bullying but did not report it, and may have feelings of discomfort about their behavior), were significantly more likely to have considered suicide.6

Bullying has an impact on mental health.

Bullys/victims are at increased risk of suicidal ideation due to increased risk of mental health problems.12-15 These risks may be attributable to the development of increased emotional arousal and poor impulse control.16,17 Findings also demonstrated the relationship between suicidal behaviors, bullying victimization experiences, and depression, which facilitates the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts.18 These children were bullied within the last thirty days, as opposed to bullied children who do not have insomnia or feel lonely. Age and gender were not found to be statistically significant.19 Over time, victimization increased the likelihood of involvement in bullying while bullying increased the likelihood of victimization.10 When symptoms of depression were controlled, suicidal ideation occurred most frequently among bullied adolescents.10

The goal of the behavior appears to be to influence the actions or attitudes of others. As a result, the most important thing for a young person who is suicidal is to seek professional help as soon as possible, because suicidal feelings can be very strong. H. A. Abdirahman and colleagues discovered a strong link between bullying and poor mental health in Caribbean studies. They emphasize the critical need to develop effective strategies for reducing bullying among children and adolescents.20 Brunner and colleagues reported that bullying has an indirect effect on suicide. Their findings indicate that there is a link between bullying and intentional self-harm (DSH). If the DSH behavior persists, a strong link between DSH and suicidal behavior develops.21 Bullying has both direct and indirect effects on suicide ideation and attempts. For example, a significant negative outcome of victimization may be an increased risk of suicide attempt and death due to a growing sense of hopelessness in the child.22 Evidence showed that verbal victimization was associated with an increased risk of developing hopelessness in elementary school children.22 Furthermore, studies revealed that problems in peer relationships are positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts, and that feelings of loneliness are negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts.

The dose-response relationship

Several studies have found a dose-response relationship13between victimization and suicidal ideation and attempt. The more frequently a child is bullied, the more likely he or she will develop these thoughts and ideas.13

Gender and Bullying

Several studies have found a link between bullying victims and suicidal ideation and attempt when age, race/ethnicity, and gender were all controlled for. Another finding was the link between gender and school bullying as a risk factor for suicidal ideation. It has been discovered, for example, that while the prevalence of suicidal ideation may vary. When McMahon et al investigated the prevalence of bullying in Irish adolescent boys, they discovered that the odds ratio of lifetime self-harm was four times higher for boys who had been bullied than for boys who had not been bullied.25 Being bullied or bullying others are both potential impulsive risk factors for suicidal behavior in girls. After controlling for age, school factors, family factors, and psychiatric disorders, girls who were bullied (OR=2.07, CI=1.04-4.11, p=0.037) or who bullied others (OR=3.27, CI=1.08-9.95, p=0.037) had a higher risk of suicide attempts.26

Various studies, however, find varying effects of gender. An Italian school survey found a high prevalence of victimization, and their regression model revealed the importance of child gender and age. They discovered that older girls were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than younger girls or boys.12 Barker and colleagues also stated that the highest prevalence of bullies and bullying victims was found among middle-aged adolescents. These youth have high/increasing bullying and victimization trajectories.10 One study found that older adolescents are more likely to have suicidal ideation. 27

Similarly, Kim and Luukkonena et al. discovered that females who were involved in school bullying as a victim or perpetrator were more likely to commit suicide.5,26 Van der Wal and Park et al.28,29 described that girls have a strong association between being bullied and suicidal ideation.29 Depression also facilitated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. A few studies found that depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts only in females.18 Van der et al. discovered that being bullied has common outcomes of suicidal ideation in both boys and girls. These associations were stronger for indirect bullying than for direct bullying. They went on to say that direct bullying had a significant influence on depression and suicidal ideation in girls but not in boys.28 Rigby and Slee, on the other hand, stated that the link between being a bully and suicidal ideation applied only to boys.30

Bullying and sexual orientation

Patrick and his colleague examined data from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey, which was collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12, and discovered that children were bullied more because of their sexual preferences.31 They discovered that 29% of male students and 27% of female students in these three grades reported being bullied because of personal sexual preferences.31,32 The survey also revealed lower quality of life (QOL) scores associated with bullying. Bullying had the greatest impact on suicide attempts among non-Hispanic sexual minority male youths (odds ratio = 21.39 vs. 1.65-3.38).31

Long-term, prospective studies are needed in the future to determine the causality of bullying and suicide, as well as the differential effects of gender on the association. The media plays an important role in covering and broadcasting suicide-related teen deaths. For example, if teenage suicide is underreported for good reason, there is less risk of glorifying the behavior and less risk of suicidal clusters. Another way for the media to help is to educate the public about the seriousness of bullying and its consequences.

Bullying in schools is a major public health issue that requires the careful attention of school systems, teachers, health care providers, policymakers, and families. School systems can work with teachers, parents, students, and the community to address bullying issues in their schools and devise effective responses.
500 words, references less than 5 years, APA 7 format.

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