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BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Discussions.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Discussions.

 

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 1.

  • Which of the following is NOT a fundamental distinguishing feature of hormones: a particular hormone has the ability to activate any cell in the body
  • The enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cAMP from ATP is:
  • adenylate cyclase
  • The following hormones are classified as cholesterol-derived hormones:
  • steroid
  • These are required for target cells to respond to a particular hormone:
  • receptors
  • If one hormone must first operate on a target cell before another hormone may exert its own impact, this is referred to as:
  • permissive outcomes
  • The neurohypophysis is also referred to as:
  • posterior pituitary gland
  • The following organs release oxytocin:
  • posterior pituitary gland
  • Which of the following is NOT a result of ADH secretion:
  • preserving water
  • Diabetes insipidus is caused by a decrease in the release of this hormone:
  • ADH

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 2.

  • Plasma is the blood’s liquid component.
  • Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets are blood components that have formed.
  • Red blood cells are known as erythrocyte
  • Eosinophils are white blood cells that contain granules that are easily stained by eosin. They are involved in parasite infections, inflammation, and allergies.
  • Neutrophils -A kind of white blood cell that engulfs invading germs and contributes to the body’s nonspecific anti-disease defenses.WBCs and leukocytes combat infection.
  • Histamine-producing basophils are circulating leukocytes.
  • Lymphocytes are two kinds of white blood cells that are part of the immune system of the body: T lymphocytes originate in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and target cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 3.

  • What is the cardiovascular system made up of?
    the heart and the blood vessels
  • What are the names of the heart’s two receiving chambers?
    atria
  • What are the heart’s two disbursing chambers?
    ventricles
  • What sort of blood is pumped by the left side of the heart?
    blood that is oxygenated
  • What sort of blood is pumped by the right side of the heart?
    blood that is deoxygenated
  • What circuit transports all of the deoxygenated blood from the heart’s right ventricle to the lungs?
    circuit pulmonary
  • What circuit transports all of the oxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle and out of the body?
    circuitry in the system
  • Where does all gas exchange take place?
    capillaries
  • What exactly are capillaries?
    O2 and CO2 diffusion is enabled via minute blood channels.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 4.

  • The systemic circuit transports blood from the left side of the heart to the body and returns it to the right side.
  • The pulmonary circuit transports blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back to the left side.
  • The coronary circuit supplies oxygenated blood to the heart for its metabolic demands.
  • Which of the following are the three tissue layers of arteries and veins?
    from within to outside:
    Interna Tunica
    tunica externa tunica media
  • What exactly is the tunica interna?
    the endothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
  • What is the tunica media made up of? What function does each component serve?
    Smooth muscle – regulates artery diameter and contributes to tissue perfusion and blood pressure.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 5.

one full beating of the heart is called a cardiac cycle

chamber systole contraction (pressure going up)

Chamber diastole relaxation (pressure going down)

All chambers are quiet and relaxing.

A quick rundown of the cardiac cycle’s stages
1. Ventricular Filtration (quiescent period)
a. atrial systole, b. passive filling

2. Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction

3. Ejection of Ventricular Fluid

4. Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation

1. Ventricular Filtration
Quick filling, diastasis, and artrial systole are all symptoms of rapid filling.

Conclusion-diastolic volume (EDV) (Max Full) of blood in each ventricle at the end of diastole

Stroke volume (SV) is the quantity of blood that the heart pumps out with each contraction. (EDV-ESV)

End-systolic volume (SV) is the quantity of blood remaining in the ventricle following contraction.

SV/EDV = ejection fraction This will give us a percentage of the amount of blood we sent out.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 6.

 

  • Which of the following best characterizes the lymphatic system’s function?
  • Reintroducing fluids and proteins into the bloodstream
  • What channel transports lymph from the majority of the body?
  • The thoracic duct
  • What lymph channel is responsible for lymph outflow from the lower limbs?
  • Cysterna chyli
  • Which of the following statements best defines lymph capillaries?
  • They have a higher permeability than blood capillaries.
  • Which of the following statements best characterizes edema?
  • Excessive fluid buildup in the tissues
  • Which of the following compounds can be found in lymph fluid?
  • Ions of water, proteins, and lymphocytes
  • Which of the following statements best characterizes lymph transport?
  • Lymph movement is reliant on muscular contractions of neighboring muscles.

BIO-202: Human Anatomy and Physiology II Week 7.

  • oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
    are organs of the GI tract
  • teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
    are accessory structures of the GI system
  • organs of the GI tract that are located in the peritoneal cavity are intraperitoneal
  • stomach, spleen, liver, part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon are intraperitoneal organs

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