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BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Discussions.

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Discussions.

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Introduction to BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I.

This is the first of two courses that will look at the structure and function of the human body, as well as the mechanisms that keep it in a state of homeostasis. Cells, tissues, genetics, and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and neurological systems are all studied in this section.

BIO-201L is a prerequisite.

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Week 1 Discussion.

Week 1 Part 1

Thermodynamics and Kinetics

  • Thermodynamic Potential from the 2nd law of thermodynamics
    • Entropy – 2nd law of thermodynamics
    ASuniverse = ASsystem + ASrest
Water and Ice at equilibrium @ 0ºC –
  • If a small amount of heat is added slowly enough, temperature and pressure will remain stable and uniform throughout the system.
  • Some of the ice will melt, thus increasing the entropy of the system.
  • The increase in entropy is the added heat divided by the temperature (273 K)
  • Offsets of the “energy from the environment” term TS and the “expansion work” term PV connect the four thermodynamic potentials.
  • Schroeder’s mnemonic graphic can help you remember the links between the four thermodynamic potentials.

Bonds must be destabilized before any reaction – even exergonic – may occur. Molecules have enough energy to overcome activation energy and undergo reaction rate = k f [A][B] k f ( AB)
N.b. pace is determined by EA rather than G N.b. if G > 0, must deliver energy to allow the reaction to proceed

Reversible Reactions

● Free energy of activation

● Fraction of C&D w/ energy for reaction○ f(CD)= 10^ -15

● Fraction of A&B w/ energy for the reaction

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Week 2 Discussion/assignments.

  • The human body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to the whole organism level:
  • Chemical level: Atoms, molecules, organelles
  • Cellular level: single cell
  • Tissue level: Groups of similar cells
  • Organ level: Contains two or more types of tissues
  • Organ system level: organs that work closely together
  • Organismal level: all organ systems combined to create the whole organism
  • Homeostasis: The body’s ability to detect the change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and maintain relatively stable internal conditions (negative feedback) BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Positive Feedback: works with the direction of the change (Harmful: Fever > 104 F. Fatal at 113 F)
A. Self-amplifying cycle leads to greater change in the same direction and the feedback loop is repeated BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
B. Normal way of producing rapid/large changes like childbirth, blood clotting, protein digestion, fever, generation of nerve signals. Associated with disease or harm

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Week 3 Discussion Notes.

Association studies are experiments that are performed to determine the association between two variables. In other words, discovering a relationship between x and y. -Comparison studies are trials that compare different populations in one or more situations. – For example, consider the low-sunlight and high-sunlight examples discussed in Lecture 3 – The connection in association studies is the correlation between the variables. We seek for parallels and contrasts between circumstances in comparative studies. – For example, looking for a link between smoking and the risk of lung cancer. – For example, consider the link between apple purchases in the United States and economic development in the United States. In this association research, we are attempting to determine the relationship between two variables (apples purchased in the United States and U.S. economic growth).  BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Week 5 Discussion Notes.

  • Korsakoff’s syndrome is characterized by ies.

Alzheimer’s Illness

  • Dementia kind
  • Progressive mental function decrease, memory loss, confusion, and language deficiencies
  • The sixth biggest cause of mortality in the United States, accounting for 4% of all fatalities each year
  • Cortical and limbic atrophy—small, neuronal loss
  • Amyloid plaques-Toxicity of scar tissue
  • Neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissue cause neuronal death and interfere with neural transmission. BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Frontal Lobe

  • Motivation, organization, and impulse control
    Characteristics, motor function
  • Phineas Gage’s prefrontal lobe was injured, and he experienced personality changes, which led to his lobotomy.
  • Ice, Walter Freeman Pick a lobotomy, be minimally sedated, and go behind the eye into the skull, then mix it up.
    Used to modify the behavior of aggressive persons or those suffering from schizophrenia. BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
  • Howard Dully was lobotomized for being “defiant.”


BIO-201: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

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