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Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.

Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.

Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.


Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.
Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.

Endometrial hyperplasia is a female reproductive system condition. Because there are too many cells in the uterus, the lining (endometrium) becomes unusually thick (hyperplasia). It is not cancer, but it increases the risk of developing endometrial cancer, a type of uterine cancer, in certain women.

What is the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia?
Endometrial hyperplasia is uncommon. It affects about 133 out of every 100,000 women.

Who is at risk for endometrial hyperplasia?
Endometrial hyperplasia is more common in women who are perimenopausal or menopausal. It is uncommon in women under the age of 35. Other risk factors are:

Some breast cancer treatments (tamoxifen).
Menstruation at a young age or menopause at a later age
Ovarian, uterine, or colon cancer in the family.
Gallbladder trouble.
Hormone replacement therapy.
Never having been pregnant.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (PCOS).
Thyroid condition.
The white race.
Menstruation has been irregular or absent for a long time.
What types of endometrial hyperplasia exist?
Endometrial hyperplasia is classified by the types of cell changes in the endometrial lining. Endometrial hyperplasia can be classified into the following types:

Simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia): This type of endometrial hyperplasia has cells that appear normal and are unlikely to become cancerous. This condition may improve on its own. Hormone therapy can be beneficial in some cases.
Atypical endometrial hyperplasia, simple or complex: This precancerous condition is caused by an abnormal cell overgrowth. Without treatment, your chances of developing endometrial or uterine cancer rise.
What factors contribute to endometrial hyperplasia?
Endometrial hyperplasia causes women to produce too much estrogen and not enough progesterone. These female hormones are necessary for menstruation and pregnancy. Estrogen thickens the endometrium during ovulation, while progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy. Progesterone levels fall if conception does not occur. The drop in progesterone causes the uterus to shed its lining, resulting in a menstrual period.

Endometrial hyperplasia patients produce little to no progesterone. As a result, the endometrial lining is not shed by the uterus. Instead, the lining continues to thicken and grow.

Obesity also contributes to an increase in estrogen levels. Adipose tissue (fat stores in the abdomen and body) has the ability to convert fat-producing hormones to estrogen. This is how obesity contributes to elevated estrogen levels in the blood and raises the risk of endometrial hyperplasia.

Cleveland Clinic | Normal Uterine Anatomy

What signs and symptoms indicate endometrial hyperplasia?
Endometrial hyperplasia can cause the following symptoms in women:

Menstruation that is abnormal, such as short menstrual cycles, unusually long periods, or missed periods.
Menstrual heaviness).
Menopause-related bleeding (when periods stop).
Endometrial hyperplasia is diagnosed in what way?
A variety of conditions can result in abnormal bleeding. Your doctor may order one or more of the following tests to determine the source of your symptoms:

Transvaginal ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the uterus. The images can show how thick the lining is.
Endometrial biopsies are performed to obtain tissue samples from the uterine lining. Pathologists examine the cells to determine whether or not cancer exists.
Hysteroscopy: Your provider examines the cervix and looks inside the uterus with a thin, lighted tool called a hysteroscope. This procedure may be combined with a dilation and curettage (D&C) or biopsy by your provider. It is best to combine this with a visually guided dilation and curettage of the endometrium. Your provider can use hysteroscopy to detect abnormalities within the endometrial cavity and take a targeted (directed) biopsy of any suspicious areas.
What are the side effects of endometrial hyperplasia?
All types of hyperplasia can result in abnormal and heavy bleeding, leaving you anemic. Anemia occurs when your body lacks sufficient iron-rich red blood cells.

Atypical endometrial hyperplasia can progress to cancer if left untreated. In about 8% of women with untreated simple atypical endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial or uterine cancer develops. Cancer develops in approximately 30% of women with complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia who do not receive treatment.

Endometrial hyperplasia is managed or treated in what ways?
If you have an increased risk of cancer as a result of atypical endometrial hyperplasia, your doctor may recommend a hysterectomy to remove the uterus. You will be unable to conceive after a hysterectomy. Many people find that less invasive progestin treatments improve their symptoms. Progestin is available in a variety of forms, including:

Progesterone administration orally (megace, norethindrone, medroxyprogesterone).

Intrauterine progesterone hormonal device (IUD).
Depo-Provera® injection
What can I do to avoid endometrial hyperplasia?
Certain precautions may lower your risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia:

After menopause, combine progesterone and estrogen (if you use hormone therapy).
Use a birth control pill.
Stop smoking.
Keep a healthy weight.
What is the prognosis (prognosis) for endometrial hyperplasia patients?
Progestin treatments work well for endometrial hyperplasia. Endometrial or uterine cancer can result from atypical endometrial hyperplasia. To eliminate the risk of cancer, your healthcare provider may recommend more frequent direct (hysteroscopic) examinations or a hysterectomy.

Benign Endometrial Hyperplasia.

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