This study aimed to provide insight into how the Child Healthcare Clinic (BVC) nurse supports and encourages the child’s bonding with their parents during routine healthcare clinic checkups. The study was conducted qualitatively. The information was gathered through interviews with four focus groups of eighteen BVC nurses who work solely for the BVC. The resulting data were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. Results: The research material revealed the following theme: Empower the parents so the child can maintain a healthy relationship with them. This is accomplished by the BVC nurse developing a trusting relationship with the parents and assisting them in their new roles as parents. The BVC nurses must have extensive knowledge of children’s needs and development and exceptional communication skills. The BVC nurse must also have access to cooperation and support from their colleagues, as well as the support of other related professions. Conclusion: Supporting parents during their infant children’s bonding period is critical for BVC nurses because there is much to be determined about children’s development and future possibilities during this formative period. 1. introductory paragraph This is the template that Child Healthcare Clinic (BVC) nurses use to monitor children’s health from birth to the age of six years, with the cooperation of their parents. The BBC’s goal is to promote a child’s healthy physical, mental, and emotional development so that the child can eventually develop into a healthy contributing member of society. The purpose of this study is to highlight how the BVC nurse uses regularly scheduled appointments established by National and Regional guidelines to promote and establish a good connection between the young child and the parents. The good connection between the parents and the child during the bonding phase has an important bearing on the child’s mental health in both the short and long-term development . According to the Medical Research Council’s analysis of child healthcare, there is convincing evidence that early interaction between parents and children significantly influences the child’s development. Bonding impacts the child’s social, emotional, and psychological development . A secure and trusting relationship during a child’s first years is essential for their health and development . Connecting and bonding relationships are formed and nurtured in these early years of life. Children form this bond with their parents, but parents do not form the same bond with their children . Children learn to rely on their parents for survival as this connection develops. This dependence ranges from relying on them for daily needs to using them as a secure base for safety and protection when dangerous situations arise . The most recent research supports the theory that this early interaction between parents and infants has a long-term biological impact on the child . A traumatic experience between the parents and the infant during this bonding and connecting process can result in potential dysfunction or psychological or emotional problems . The newborn baby’s first task is learning to recognize their parent in their new world. To learn this primary lesson, the infant must rely on their five senses. The infant learns to identify their parents by seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, and tasting. Parents are taught how to respond appropriately to their children’s signals and communications. The parent’s presence and what it means to the baby become the baby’s world by being physically close enough to observe the baby at all times and by providing it with the appropriate care in terms of its needs and signals. It becomes “clear” to the infant that his or her parents are there to protect and preserve it . The child is completely reliant on the parent’s facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language to understand and interpret this brand new world and environment . A child’s close physical proximity serves two purposes: it protects the child from danger and it begins to teach the child what it means to exist in a social world [8-10]. During the first few months of life, the baby selects the people with whom he or she will bond and connect . A secure base, which is a central concept in bonding theory, is defined as the parent’s ability to provide everything the baby needs during its infant life . The child learns to trust his or her parents and believes that they will be there if a danger or threatening situation arises. When a child confirms the parents as a safe haven, he or she gains the confidence and security to begin and explore their surroundings . Children have a fairly good understanding of who they belong to by the time they are seven months old . As trust becomes an important factor in human protection, it becomes a social capital that provides order and cohesion to existence. One of the major driving forces of a society is encouraging people to believe in themselves and others. When a person learns to trust themselves, it provides them with the confidence and courage to act. One of the keys to encouraging curiosity and creativity is to build trust. The development of trust is an important factor in the development of self-esteem. Self-esteem is largely determined by how one is treated by those who are closest to them. The level of self-esteem a person has is an important factor in how they learn to deal with difficulties and succeed in their endeavors. A person’s self-esteem can be high or low, or it can be weak or strong. The trust bond formed during the infant’s early interactions with their parents during this formative period provides a solid foundation for the future possibility of having and developing trusting relationships with other adults, peers, and the outside world. Parents of newborn infants must be confident in their parenting abilities. If they lack confidence, they should be given support and encouragement. Without a trusting foundation, it will be difficult for children to develop a positive sense of self-esteem. In order to promote a common sense of a good life style within the culture, society should cultivate a citizenship that is built on trust . Katy Eriksson’s nursing theory is based on the concepts of nurturing, playing, learning, faith, and hope. Nurturing is the most fundamental form of caring, and it is defined as managing and providing for another human being. Playing is a natural state of being and an expression of health. Desire, testing, training, passion, and creativity are all important aspects of play. Individuals find their own resources and the security to test their limits through play. The learning process includes individual development and is the result of mentorship, encouragement, and motivation. Because both are related to natural behavior, learning and playing should have a close and distinct relationship. Faith and hope are fundamental concepts in Eriksson’s health theory. When things do not go as planned and the individual finds themselves in a crisis, faith and hope provide inner strength. According to Eriksson, faith does not have to be religious, despite the fact that religion and even superstition have played a significant role in the evolution of faith throughout history. But she insists that faith is essential in the struggle for survival. Faith is a fundamental component of health, and hope provides direction and impetus for health.
Love is both the manifestation and the outcome of this health . According to two studies [14,15], the percentage of mothers who experience depression after giving birth ranges from 8% to 15%. Depression can have a negative impact on parent-child interaction and the quality of the connection in the bonding process. If these conditions exist, it is critical to identify them as soon as possible . According to the MFR in 1999, it is critical that the BVC clinic have a well-balanced combination of general measures designed to reach and protect all of the targeted and vulnerable groups. These broad measures should be designed to identify individuals in order to assist parents and children who are at high risk of illness or other forms of health impairment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as a state of total physical, mental, and social well-being in 1948. The WHO has described health as a resource and a prerequisite for human life and social development over the years. If this resource is part of an individual’s makeup, the individual will have more control over their own life situation in interaction with their environment. At the World Health Organization meeting in Jakarta in 1997, it was stated that health is not only a human right for individuals; it also has implications for the social and economic development of society (ibid.). A family can be defined as a group of people who are linked together by structural, functional, and emotional ties . The family’s focus shifted from extended families to nuclear families. The functions previously performed by different generations within the family, such as education and child care, were now passed down to the mother and father in the nuclear family. Nuclear family stability has declined significantly over the last fifty years. As a result of new family configurations, interaction patterns between family members have changed . Since the BVC’s inception, regularly scheduled appointments for all children have been an important aspect of its function . The Swedish Healthcare System’s mandate is that all families and children have equal access to healthcare, with health and well-being promoted . The BVC’s main goal is to prevent problems with children’s physical and mental health . By adhering to the BVC’s objectives, stress that is potentially harmful to both children and parents should be reduced and minimized in order to create an environment conducive to the children’s comprehensive and complete development.
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SoS 1981:8 documents the program for regularly scheduled appointments in conjunction with the immunization program . The BVC function is built on this foundation. Any opportunities created by the implementation of these mandates should be used for additional health education, as well as potential parental advice and support for the children’s families . During routine clinic visits, the children’s and parents’ relationships and interactions can be observed. The nurse should take note of the nature of the parents’ and children’s eye contact, how the parents and children make touching or holding contact with each other, and to listen to verbal communication and even baby talk. Emotional contact and the parent-child connection can also be observed during physical examinations and vaccination appointments [19,21]. In their support of the family, BVC nurses’ psychosocial aspects can be divided into three categories. They are designed to help parents adjust to their new role as parents. They provide the extra assistance that families with special needs children require. Finally, they can assist in detecting cases where children are not being properly cared for, are neglected, or are victims of child abuse (Protect the safety net 1994:14). The purpose of this study was to show how BVC nurses support, encourage, and promote the child’s attachment to their parents through the bonding process with regularly scheduled BVC appointments. 2. Material and Procedure 2.1. Design For this study, the qualitative method was used for data collection and analysis. The qualitative method’s essence is to gather information and work with it in order to gain a deeper understanding of the subject under investigation. The qualitative method relies on the interviewees’ intimate knowledge of the source of their information to produce meaningful results [22,23]. The qualitative interviews in this study were conducted in the form of focus groups. Focus groups are a research technique in which data is collected through group interaction on a specific subject .
The qualitative research interview is used to obtain a description of the themes from the interviewees’ real-world experiences, and these themes are the link between the interpretation of the interviews and the reality of the experience itself . Informants (2.2) Interviewees for the focus groups were recruited through contacts within the healthcare system. These contacts referred eligible candidates to the study and these candidates, in turn, contributed to additional “snowball sampling”. Snowball sampling is the process by which anyone who has already been recruited for the study can refer the names of other eligible candidates they know who may be interested in participating . The study’s inclusion criteria included district nurses and pediatric nurses who worked solely in the BVC of Västra Götaland. District nurses who have worked in both the BVC and the Healthcare Centre were excluded (VC). Because the study’s focus was on nurses who worked primarily with children aged zero to six years old, these nurses were eliminated. The sample was divided into four focus groups, two with four participants each and two with five participants each. The participants were all female. Their time spent at the clinic ranged from two to thirty years. 2.3. Configuration and Data Collection Unstructured interviews with the four focus groups were used to collect data . A three-question interview guide was used. The interview questions were as follows: how are BVC visits used to encourage parent-infant bonding? What do you do when you notice that something isn’t working as well as it should? When evaluating issues, who do you work with? The interview room was located at the interviewer’s workplace and provided enough privacy for the participants to engage in private conversation. The interviews lasted between 55 and 65 minutes. Both authors were present at all four interviews with various focus groups. Each interview would be moderated by one of the authors, with the other acting as an observer. From interview to interview, the authors switched roles. It is beneficial to have an observer in the room because, while the moderator conducted the interview using the interview guide, the observer was in charge of taking notes, managing the tape recorder, and maintaining the room’s environment. Another advantage of having both authors present during the actual interview was that they could immediately discuss their impressions of the interviews [23,24]. The participants were all introduced to each other before the authors began taping the interviews, and they engaged in some informal conversation to create a more relaxed atmosphere . The participants sat around a table with a tape recorder on it for the actual interview. The tape recorder was tested briefly to ensure that it was working properly. Before the recorder was turned on, the participants were reminded of the study’s goal and the format of the interview. The moderator informed the group that she would be asking them questions as a group and that they were free to discuss their thoughts and feelings as a group. Then she asked the three interview questions, and the conversation began. After the interview, each group was given the opportunity to add to the response if they felt something significant had been left out of the group discussion. 2.4. Data Examination The interview transcripts were systematically analyzed using the qualitative content analysis method developed by Graneheim and Lundman . Each of the four focus groups had its own analysis unit (Table 1). Each of these provided an interview that was verbatim transcribed shortly after it was completed. The transcripts were read through several times separately by both authors and the study’s supervisor in order to get the best impression of the analysis units possible. The authors then read the transcripts together in order to better understand the analysis units and compare their impressions of the interview content. The analysis units were then divided into two domains, which were eventually labeled trust and support. Following the identification of the two domains, a more thorough reading was carried out, with the meaning bearing units highlighted with colored markings. Each of the four large analysis units was made more manageable and easier to comprehend by identifying the meaning bearing units, without losing any of the material’s context. In the transcripts, meaning bearing units were words, sentences, or paragraphs that expressed the same idea or impression. As a result, the text was condensed, and the meaning bearing units were elevated to a higher level of abstraction. The text has been condensed to make it shorter and more manageable while retaining the essential content of the interview . After that, different codes were assigned to the condensed version of the text, which was then organized into seven categories with sixteen subcategories. The categories in the analysis provide an answer to the question of what BVC nurses do to strengthen the bond between the baby and the parents. The theme of the study is identified through an interpretive combination of the categories (Table 1). The theme responds to the question of how BVC nurses strengthen the bond between the baby and his or her parents . Ethical Consideration 2.5 The relevant managers provided written permission. The managers were given written and oral information about the purpose and design of the study. The interviewees were given similar information. The interviewees were told that their participation was entirely voluntary and that they could opt out at any time. They were told that the interviews were private and that all information about their identities would be kept secure. The information gathered was only to be used in the current study.
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